Ladd Educational Psychology
What are schemes?
Schemes-groups of similar thoughts or actions; patterns of behavior {A scheme is calling a pony a dog because they have a scheme for a dog therefore they think that everything that has four legs is a dog}
What are reflexes?
Reflexes- are biological reactions to environmental stimuli {such as shivering when you are cold, a child’s sucking reaction and grasping whatever is placed in the hand etc.}
What are Constructed Structures?
Constructed Structures- Complex Schemes {once a scheme is built, the complex factors within a scheme such as when learning that a pony is not a dog, they associate the pony with the schema animal instead of the schema for dog}
What is adaptation?
Adaptation-driven by biological drive to obtain balance of schemes, changing schemes to better meet environmental needs {example: once a scheme is built, the complex factors within a scheme such as when learning that a pony is not a dog, they associate the pony with the schema animal instead of the schema for dog…therefore your thoughts are adapting to the new information}
What is Equilibration & Disequilibration?
Equilibration & Disequilibration- take what you know and take what you don’t know, and make sense of it
What is Accommodation?
Accommodation- process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment {If you have to accommodate two guests (new information) in your house (your brain), then you will have to move things in your house (existing information in your brain) to accommodate those two guests (information)}
What is Assimilation ?
Assimilation- process of using or transforming the environment so it can be placed in pre-existing cognitive structures or it is a form of adaptation in which an experience in the environment is incorporated into an existing scheme {example: once you have learned to drive a car with a stick shift, you likely will also be able to drive a pick-up truck with a stick shift}
What is Egocentrism?
Egocentrism- trouble seeing someone else’s point of view or is the tendency to believe that other people look at the world as you do (focusing on yourself)
What is Reversibility ?
Reversibility- means that at any given moment in an action one can imagine a previous moment or an initial moment as well as the next moment or the final moment. {ex: in the conservation of water experiment, one has the ability to mentally trace the process of pouring the liquid from the third back to the second container.}
What is ZDP (ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT)?
ZDP (ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT)- is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help
What is Heteronomous?
Heteronomous stage- stage of moral reasoning characterized by a strict adherence to rules and duties
What is Autonomous?
Autonomous stage- characterized by the ability to consider rules critically and selectively apply these rules based on a goal of mutual respect and cooperation
What was important about Benet?
Benet was the first person to measure intelligence
What is a Correlational Study?
Correlational Study- Shows a relationship for example if one thing occurs something else is likely to happen
What is a Descriptive Study ?
Descriptive Study- They use tests, surveys and interviews
What is Action Research?
Action research is a form of descriptive research
What is Experimental Study ?
Experimental Study- They manipulate variables and use the scientific procedure
What is Principle of Conservation ?
Principle of Conservation- to logically determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size. {Example the conservation of liquid experiment}
What was important about the Mean Monkey Experiment?
It focused on deception
What is important about the Bobo Doll experiment?
It focused on aggression
What was important about the Visual Cliff Experiment?
– Depth perception
Where the major theories: Biologiacl, Psychoanalytic, Behavioral, and Cognitive based on nature or nurture?
Biological (Nature), Psychoanalytic (Nature), Behavioral (Nurture), Cognitive (Is part nature part nurture)
What is Centration?
Centration isthe tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
What is Constructivism?
Constructivism – is a psychological theory of knowledge which argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from their experiences
What is Realism?
Realism- imaginary playmate
What is Animism?
Animism is treating something that isn’t living as living
What is irreversibility?
Irreversibility is the difficulty recognizing that transformations can be undone or reversed.
What are reflexes?
Reflexes are biological reactions to the environment
What are the Factors that affect moral development?
The factors that affect moral development are: interactions with peers, models of moral and pro-social behavior, discussing moral issue dilemmas, and self perceptions
What is object permanence?
Object Permanence (Peek-a-boo)- is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched.
What is Self esteem ?
Self esteem: how I feel about myself
What is Self Efficacy?
Self Efficacy: what am I capable of doing
1. What is the age range and school grade for a typical child at the Sensorimotor level?
Age Birth-2 years
2. What is the age range and school grade for a typical child at the Pre-Operational level?
Age 2-7 years, Pre-K-1st Grade
3. What is the age range and school grade for a typical child at the Concrete Operational level?
Age 7-11 years, 1st-5th Grade
4. What is the age range and school grade for a typical child at the Formal Operational level?
Ages 11-Adult
5. What are the key characteristics expected for a child in the Sensorimotor level, and give an illustrative example.
The child develops the ability to imitate, and they acquire Object Permanence, and their actions are goal-oriented. Ex: Playing peek-a-boo or hide and seek, Searching for objects behind parent’s back
6. What are the key characteristics expected for a child in the Pre-Operational level, and give an illustrative example.
Characteristics include: Rapid increase in language ability with over generalized language, symbolic thought, dominated by perception. The child is at an egocentric stage, and they cannot reason (non-conservation), Ex: “We goed to the store.” ; The cookies (The teacher had 2 cookies…the child had one cookie…teacher asks child if they have a fair amount and child says no because teacher has one more cookie…teacher splits child’s cookie in half and then asks if it is now fair and the child replies, “yes.”)
7. What are the key characteristics expected for a child in the Concrete Operational level, and give an illustrative example.
Characteristics: The child can think logically about concrete objects, Differentiation, Conservation, Decentration, Reason about Transformation (Opposite of Pre-Operational) Ex:Conservation of Numbers Task
8. What are the key characteristics expected for a child in the Formal Operational level, and give an illustrative example.
The child can think Abstractly, systematically, and hypothetically, Ex: Algebra Problem
9. List at least 2 strategies that would foster cognitive development for a child in the Sensorimotor level.
Provide a model for students to follow, i.e. thinking out loud or modeling good behavior. Hands on, visual aids.
10. List at least 2 strategies that would foster cognitive development for a child in the Pre-Operational level.
Use vocabulary flash-cards that have pictures and words on it (building knowledge), build upon schemes (more vocabulary), and manipulate objects
11. List at least 2 strategies that would foster cognitive development for a child in the Concrete Operational level.
Brief presentation, use familiar situations for explanations
12. List at least 2 strategies that would foster cognitive development for a child in the Formal Operational level.
Giving students problems that require them to think hypothetically and abstractly such as in an algebraic statement: “If A is greater than B , and if B is greater than C, than A must be greater than C.” Give real life applications
13. Describe the central concepts for the following theorists: (What kind of theorist is it?) A.Vygotski, B. Erickson, C. Kohlberg ; Gilligan, D. Piaget
A. Social Development, working with others scaffolding etc., B. Identity and Psychosocial Development ; Trust with others (You have to establish basic trust before anything else happens) Self Concept, Self esteem ; Self Efficacy C. World Dilemmas and moral reasoning and development D. Egocentrism, Children think and interoperate the world differently than adults, had moral realism and relativism
14. How do the following theorists: A.Vygotski, B. Erickson, C. Kohlberg ; Gilligan, and D. Piaget believe that development can be fostered?
A. Through socially Guided Practice or scaffolding or tutoring and apprenticeship, B. Through routine and schedule and nurture, C. Through moral Reasoning, obedience law and order and social concepts D. Through age and development
15. Is the theory a stage theory? If so, what are the stages? If not, describe how development proceeds (i.e. grows and becomes increasingly complex)? A.Vygotski, B. Erickson, C. Kohlberg ; Gilligan, D. Piaget
A. No, development proceeds socially, one person has to be on a higher level than the other, B.Yes it is a stage theory; The stages are: Trust ; Mis-trust [HOPE] (Birth-1), Autonomy ; Shame and Doubt [WILL] (1-3), Initiative vs. Guilt [PURPOSE] (3-5), Industry vs. Inferiority [COMPETENCE] (6-11), Identity vs. Role Confusion [FIDELITY] (11-End of Adolescence), C. Yes it is a stage theory; [KHOLBERG: Pre-Conventional, Conventional, Post-Conventional], [Gilligan: Title: Women’s Conception of Morality, Stage 1: Orientation to Self, Stage 2:Morality of Care, Stage 3: Morality of Non-Violence], D. Yes it is a stage theory (Refer to first sets of questions)
Know the 3 stages of Kholbergs Theory and explain them
[1. Pre-Conventional (Ages 5-8) Fear of authority, they don’t understand the laws of society, they only obey rules to avoid punishment, maximize pleasure and avoid pain, reciprocal exchange a.k.a “you scratch my back and I will scratch yours], {2. Conventional (Ages 10-20) Primary group expectations, one’s behavior is determined by what pleases or is approved by your peers, social system, takes in account society’s norms and laws, they believe laws are absolute], (3. Post-Conventional (Ages rarely reached before age 20 and only by a small portion) civil liberties and individual rights, a universal ethical principle-matters of individual conscience, concepts of justice, human dignity and equality) This varies from area to area, and Kholberg did not take into account the differences between men and women
What are the stages in Piaget’s Theory and what are the major words associated with each stage (and know the meaning of each)?
Santa Please COme Fast….Sensorimotor (Object Permanance), Preoperational (Conservation, Centration, Transformation- the ability to mentally record the process of moving from one state to another, and Reversibility, Egocentrism), Concrete Operational (Classification-the process of grouping objects on the basis of common characteristics, Seriation-the ability to arrange objects according to increasing and decreasing length, Transitivity-the ability to infer a relationship between two objects based on knowledge of their relationship with a third object), Formal Operational (Formal Thought-thinking abstractly, systematically, and hypothetically, Adolescent Egocentrism)
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