American Education
What are “low stakes tests?”
tests that have no significant consequences
What are “high stakes tests?”
tests that have consequences for students and educators
Concerning “high stakes tests,” what are the consequences for students?
might determine promotion between grades or graduation from high school
Concerning “high stakes tests,” what are the consequences for teachers?
might be used to measure their performance or to determine their salary increases
Concerning “high stakes tests,” what are the consequences for schools?
might determine their continued existence
How many different approaches to teaching are allowed by NCLB?
one
Under NCLB, how often, at which grade levels, must students take national achievement tests?
– samples from fourth and eighth
– every other year
How does he NCLB Act determine what children will be taught in the classroom?
state academic standards
Is federal power over the public schools out of proportion to the amount of financial aid it provides to the schools? Explain.
– the federal share of educational spending is below state and local communities
– but requires academic standards tests and academic standards
Roughly what proportion of the cost public education is paid for by the federal government?
as of 1999, 7.1
Roughly what proportion of the cost public education is paid for by the state?
as of 1999, 48.7%
Roughly what proportion of the cost public education is paid for by the local government agencies?
as of 1999, 44.2%
Why did the percent of state contribution to school funding increase after World War II?
classroom and teacher shortage created by the post-World War baby boom
Why did the percent of federal contribution to school funding increase after World War II?
• Cold War-involvement in science, math, and language programs in order to strengthen national defense against the Soviet Union
• War of Poverty-funds going to schools for the education of low-performing students
What is meant by the term “categorical aid” when applied to the contribution of federal funds to public schooling?
• targeting of federal funds for specific programs
• local school officials can refuse federal aid
What is meant by the term “indirect control” when applied to the contribution of federal funds to public schooling?
• federal power over education is made possible because school district or state accepts the federal money
receiving money must comply with Title VI of Civil Rights Act & Title IX of the 1972 amendments to the Higher Ed. Act
Title VI of Civil Rights Act
mandatory withholding of federal funds from institutions practicing racial, religious, or ethnic discrimination
Title IX of the 1972 amendments to the Higher Ed. Act
based on the basis of sexual gender should not be: excluded from participation, denied benefits, subjected to discrimination
Name two of the largest private foundations which attempt to influence public schooling
Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations
According to Spring, what is the “real” power of foundations
large sums of money
What do conservative (right wing) groups sometimes object to the work of private foundations?
designed to promote a social policy that works against the interests of smaller industrial groups
• see foundations as restricting competition and supporting monopoly control of the marketplace through funding of particular organizations and policies
According to Spring, if the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations have their way, what influence will they have over teacher certification? Explain.
• the foundations would be responsible for national certification, national test for licensing, and national teacher-education standards
• reason- they are the leading sponsor of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
In the 1960s, how did the role of the federal government expand the influence of state governments over local public education?
• federal money expanded state educational bureaucracies by funneling federal money and programs through the state government to local school districts.
Why did state control of local public education increase in the 1980s and 1990s?
• states began to establish standards for each grade level because of statewide testing
• more control over the school curriculum and the actual content of instruction
For 2002-2003, New York School Chancellor announced an incentive for district superintendents if test scores improved in their districts. What was the at incentive?
• district superintendents would receive bonuses up to $40,000 (quarter of their base salaries) if test scores improved in their districts
In March 2004 voted for a merit pay system. What is merit pay?
• receiving salary increases based on student academic growth (measured by test scores) or by being evaluated as satisfactory, improving their education, or teaching in high-property schools.
What was the main message in the book A Nation at Risk?
• national success in a global economy depended on the quality of the educational system
Who was Leon Lessinger? What was his position concerning educational accountability?
• wrote accountability in education
• believed that schools should report their accomplishment and failures to the public
• the public accounting of the results of the schooling was the heart of the accountability movement.
According to Spring, how might accountability based on test scores increase the inequality between school districts?
• it will result in every level of school administration and all teachers being judged by student performance
• schools will be competing against each other to try gain students with good records.
According to Spring, how might NCLB “report cards” increase economic and racial segregation in public schools?
• the information will be posted to real estate businesses.
• this will cause economic and segregation issues because new people to the town will be buying houses for the living arrangements of their kids.
Under NCLB, what might happened to a school that fails to show improvement after five years?
• school would be completely reorganized with an alternative governance structure such as reopening as a charter school.
Using no more than three sentences, explain George Kobayashi’s scheme for cheating on the Graduate Record Exam.
The students would fly to los Angeles to take the test. There is a three hour difference in the time zone when test is given. After tests, the agents would telephone the questions with answers so the clients could inscribe a code in pencils.
Which method of teaching is mandated by NCLB?
Phonic method p. 203
Ken Goodman claims that NCLB is unconstitutional. Using no more than one sentence, explain his argument
there should not be an act that restrains a teacher from conducting a curriculum and teaching method in their classroom.
How is the political struggle teaching reading similar to the struggle over teaching math?
• politics are trying to determine what basic skills need to be implemented in the curriculum so that the students will be ready to read and write on their own grade level.
• These skills could be phonics and writing methods
Give two examples of the extreme use of violence by students in public schools
• Two students in Burlington, Wisconsin tried to hold their principal hostage and call upon 20 students. Kill all individuals in the end including themselves. Never accomplished
• Barry Lonkatis, a 14 year old shot his algebra teacher in the back and himself. While drowning in his own blood he stood over a student stating that this was better than algebra.
Are students safer in school or away from school? Evidence?
• Safer in school
• evidence shows that in 1998, students between the ages of 12 & 18 were victims of 2.7 million crimes. In school, those students were victims of 253,000 crimes and only 60 deaths.
Did crime in schools increase or decrease during the 1990s? Evidence?
Evidence: FBI reports showed statistic,Incident in Burlington, Wisconsin that got broken up. Two students were planning on killing their principle, 20 students, and their selves.
Robert Baker “the other guy type”
• type of compulsory-school-attendance law would be interpreted to protect a child to get an education.
• There will always be someone to educate their child, but the parents may not be willing to educate their child.
Robert Baker “cookie cutter type”
• is to make the experience of schooling the same for every student
• the law was to get rid of catholic schooling in Oregon • unconstitutional but it did allow enforcement of the same form of standardization • tried to force students into public schools
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