the last clause in Section 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution, which gives Congress the means to execute its numerated powers and the basis for Congress’s implied powers
the powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution
Small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one, especially in politics.
System of shared power between units of government.
Pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; cornerstone of relations between nation and state governments.
when the federal government give the states money to help them do whatever they want them to do
Gibbons v. Ogden
Gave Congress power to regulate interstate commerce
those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers
Authority claimed by the President that is not clearly specified in the Constitution. Typically, these powers are inferred from the Constitution.
Group, however loosely or tightly organized
the power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid becasue they violate the Constitution
Layer Cake Federalim
a representative of an interest group
Marble Cake Federalism
McCulloh v. Maryland
1819–The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase “the power to tax is the power to destroy”; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
New Jersey Plan
Submitted by the head of the New Jersey delegation to the Constitutional Convention of 1787; a set of nine resolutions that would have, in effect, preserved the Articles of Confederation by amending rather than replacing them
Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population
The Los Angeles Time did a poll on January 14th, 2005 about abortion. 41% favored making it illegal with a few exceptions. 24% favored making it legal. 19% favored making legal most of the time. 12% favored making it totally illegal.
Plessy v. Ferguson
The rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
Introduction of the Constitution stating its purposes, aims, and justifications.
a general plan of action adopted by the governmenr to solve a social problem, counter a threat, or pursue an objective
citizens choose officials to make decisions to for them
State Powers, which include: Regulate trade within the state, establish local government systems, conduct elections, establish public school systems
Separate But Equal
Legal doctrine in United States constitutional law that justified and permitted racial segregation as not being in breach of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteedequal protection under the law to all citizens, and other federal civil rights laws.
Seperation of Powers
Act of vesting powers of the branches into separate bodies. Separation of powers to prevent an overpower of a branch in the government.
a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements
a set of proposals for a new government, submitted to the Constitutional Convention of 1787; included separation of the government into three branches, division of the legislature into two houses, and proportional representation in the legislature