If a teacher made statement that all students performed above average this year on a test, why is this false? 

there has to be students who made average statistically not possible 

On criterion reference test, items will be more general or specific? 


On a criterion reference test, items will be of the same or varying difficulty? 


On criterion reference test, why are items more specific and of the same difficulty? 

because objectives are written at certain levels, only vary 1 level at the most 

What is the idea behind criterion reference testing? 


Give example of a condition in instructional objective? 

Given a map, calculator, globe, etc… 

What is the main function of a test blueprint? 

determines if items match instructional objectives 

What are the components of a wellwritten objective? 

conditions, criteria, behavior/performance 

What can we do with correlations? what can we NOT do? 

make predictions, cannot tell cause and effect 

Which correlation is more useful for making predictions: large negative correlation or large positive correlation? 


what is the correlation between test scores and criterion called? 


If a teachermade test has items that match her objectives, then the test should have high… 


If you compare a newly constructed rating scale that measured honesty to an older scale that also compared honesty, what validity are we looking for? 

concurrent validity not construct, even though it deals with emotions 

Why should you be more confident in reliability of a test if it is given to the whole school, not just one grade level? 

you ensure the variability with a heterogeneous (mixed) group 

What validity is it when SAT scores are correlated with GPA? 


In testtaker groups, the more similar the population, the less the… 

reliability doesn’t show true population if everyone thinks the same 

what is a criterion referenced test? 

Compares to predetermined standards rather than to other students measures mastery standardized or teachermade shorter and narrower reflects extent to which goals are being met 

How many options are available when making a checklist? 

Two yes/no, observed/not observed, etc 

If you test the same people with the same test at a later time, it is what reliability? 


If you only have 1 test, what reliability can you calculate? 

Internal ONLY item to item comparisons 

What kind of validity is most important for regular teachers? 

content validity because what we test must match up to our standards 

What is construct validity? 

how well test scores represent behavior predicted by idea/theory/etc unobservable traits (such as honesty, depression,etc) 

If a company selects a new hire based off a test, what kind of validity? 


What is a normreferenced test? 

compare current test takers to past test takers (the norm group) standardized test results are “relative” to the norm group 

“Marie is above average” is norm or crit ref test? 

Norm reference compares her to the norm group 

“Marie is in top 25% of her class” is norm or crit ref test? 


“Marie got 97 out of 100 questions correct” is norm or crit ref test? 

criterion referenced test measures mastery 

Does norm or criterion reference usually have more variability of scores? 


How many items per objective are usually on Normref tests? 

1 or 2 per objective covers many objs purpose is to rank child 

what does a NONoverlapping band mean in band interpretation? 

possibly a REAL difference in scores or ability overlap would mean it is most likely from chance 

What is the difference between a true score and an obtained score? 

Error obtained does not take error into account (true does) 

What is “Alternate Form” reliability? 

reliability b/w 2 diff forms of test given to the same person at 2 different times indicatess equivalency of forms (such as test form A & B or retake exams) 

What are some sources of error? 

test itself (errors) test conditions (setting, etc) test taker (sleepy, not studied) scoring errors 


value representing a score that is free of error impossible to find because all tests have errors score that takes error into account 

What is content validity? 

how much a test matches/measures the teacher’s objectives can also apply to state standards 

what is the highest level of Bloom’s taxonomy? 


What are the ranges of SD? 

1 SD = 68% 2 SD = 96% 3 SD = 99% 

What is test reliability? 

measures dependability and consistency over time should yield same measurement of same variable 3 kinds: testretest, alternate forms, internal consistency 

Which measures level of mastery: Norm or Crit? 


Can we observe someone “defend”? 


How do you make a performance assessment more of a direct measure? 

include a variety of mediums 

Is it possible to produce a test that is completely without error? 

No there will always be SOME error 

Is norm or criterion referenced tests more useful in classroom decision making? 

Criterion, because you look at mastery rather than comparison to other students 


Standard error of measurement variability of error scores NOT the difference between true score and obtained score as reliability goes down, SEM goes up 

Jared has obtained score of 86, so we can be 68% sure his TRUE score lies between __ and ___ 

83 and 89
1 SD x 3 = 3 86 – 3 = 83 86 + 3 = 89 

What kind of test will any test in the content area be? 

Achievement test content validity 

“Reliability goes up, SEM goes down” is pos. or neg. correlation? 

negative they go different directions 

What are the advantages of a performance based assessment? 

Take different forms Assess different kinds of skills Easily worked in to lessons Higher cog effect needed active learning 

Jared has obtained score of 86, we can be 95% sure his true score lies between __ and ___ (SEM 3) 

80 and 92 (2 SD x 3 = 6 86 + 6 = 86 86 – 6 = 80) 

What are the 3 types of validity? 

Content validity Criterionrelated validity Construct validity 

What is the most important validity for classroom teachers? 


What can you NOT tell from correlation between two variables? 

cause and effect (can only predict) 

What are you looking for when interpreting a band chart? 

seeing which bars overlap and which do not 

What is testretest reliability 

2 scores from same person on same test at diff times indicates stability 

What are the 3 characteristics of a good obj? 

specific, observable , measurable 

What is standard deviation? 

most accurate measure of variability includes all scores in a distribution estimate of variability 

How many items per obj does crit. ref usually have? 

3+ per obj emphasis on figuring out where response is lacking shows mastery 


two variables move same at first, to a point, then show negative relationship
Ex: drinking and feeling good, to a point, then you feel sick so (+)alchohol = (+)feelings then (+)alchohol = ()feelings
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What validity is it when you compare test items to objectives? 


What are the 3 different ways to grade a performance assessment? 

Holistic (don’t need to know) Checklist Rating scales 

What is “obtained score”? 

= true score (+) and () error score
difference is error 

The less variability in a test, the lower the… 

reliability shorter tests have lower reliability not enough items to measure more accurately 

How do you get away from multiple choice tests? 

performance assessments (informal) 

What is criterionrelated validity? 

how well tests scores correlate to other tests of the same thing requires correlation coefficient to be computed 

What validity is it when SAT scores are correlated with GPA? 


What is negative correlation? 

2 variable move in opposite directions
as A increases B decreases or vice versa think of negative as BAD relationship leading to a breakup 

What can you tell if you calculate less error on one test than another? 

less error = more accurate measure 

Is there a “one size fits all” test in regards to validity and reliability? 

No
validity and reliability may only be appropriate for specific population, when administered by competent user 

What is positive correlation? 

both variables involved move in same direction
as A increases, B increases
think of positive as a good relationship since they move together 

In band interpretation, how do you find if a difference in scores is related to chance? 


If my watch is on 2 oclock but is broken, then the watch is…? 

Reliable but not valid (always know it will be on 2oclock, but it is only true 2 times each day) 

Jared has obtained score of 86, we can be 99% sure his true score lies between ___ and ___ 

77 and 95
3SD x 3 = 9 86 + 9 = 95 86 – 9 = 77 

Which is narrower? Norm or crit referencing 

Criterion ref
covers few objects because you want to know how well they mastered each one 

If you give a condition in an objective, where else must you give that condition? 

in the test same condition, same materials, same accuracy 

What are some disadvantages of performance assessments? 

unReliabile subjective due to outside influences time consuming 

What is the rationale behind performance assessments? 

It provides a direct measure of abilities. 

Is “with 100% accuracy” a condition? 

No, it does not provide a context like “with a map” or something. 

What type of referencing is most appropriate for broad objectives? 


If student has raw score of 80, and SEM is 3, and want to be 99% confident of Trues score range, what would that range be? 

8971 (3 SD’s, times 3, then plus and minus) 

When is it okay to put opinion in a True/False question? 

If you attribute it to a source. “according to so and so…” 

What should you avoid when writing a T/F question? 

using always/never opinion 

What is the best way to test organizational thinking skills? 


What kind of test item is best for assessing high level thinking skills? 


What kind of test item are students most likely to guess on? 

True/False and Multiple choice 

Which test item is the easiest to score? 


What level is appropriate for restricted essay items? 

Anything lower than application because they do not have free range on the topic, they are restricted 

How can you more objectively grade essays? 

Grade one criteria at a time, make the essays anonymous 

What is the mean of 81, 83, 82? 


What is the median of 10, 12, 8, 9, 7? 


What are the measures of central tendency? 


Which measure of central tendancy is repeated the most? 


Which measure of CT divides a distribution in half? 


Which measure of CT is the average? 


Which measure of CT is the 50th percentile? 


Which measure of Central Tendency is the most stable? 

Mean, because it takes every score into account 

Student scores 49 on vocab test, and the mean for the class is 40, with an SD is 3. What is the zscore and what percentage of the class scored higher? 

zscore = 3
less than 1% scored higher
;
z=xm
;;; SD
;
z=4940
;; 3
;
z=3 then look at bell curve



How spread out the scores are in a distribution. 

Which measure of a variable is the most dependable? 

Standard Deviation Takes all into consideration 

If a set of scores has a variance of 0, what can you conclude? 

Everyone in the distribution has the same score 

What happens to SEM when you decrease SD? 

When you decrease reliability, you have a more accurate test SD is variability between scores 

How can you change the level of a multiple choice item? 

Change the distractors make them more plausible in stem, have them choose “best” answer 

Should you grade one whole essay at a time (on the same test, by the same person) 

No, grade by criteria for all essays 

What does the “scoring criteria” for short answer and essay items tell you? 

how many points it is worth, and what you will accept as correct 

In norma dist, approx what percent of scores lies between Tscores of 4080? 


NCLB requires assessment at what grades? 



that students be tested annually 

According to the text, what is the real argument against High Stakes Testing? 

Using one score to make high stakes decisions that score is only one snapshot in time it also is biased, produces narrow scores, and causes teachers to “teach to the test” 

What kind of discussions should teachers have with students about High Stakes Testing? 


What are the 12 conditions for a HST program according to the American Educational Research Association? 

1. don’t use a single score for high stakes decisions 2. everyone should have same resources and learning opportunities 3. validation for each intended separate use (don’t use same score to tell graduation, promotion, financing, etc) 4. tell users the possible negative consequences of HST programs 5. test and curriculum are aligned 6. validity of passing scores and achievement levels (what the scores mean) 7. remediation available to those who fail the HST 8. attention to language differences 9. attention to disabilities 10. stick to rules about who will and wont take test (don’t tell lowperforming students not to come to school that day) 11. sufficient reliability researched for each intended use 12. ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects of HST 


Moving teachers around or not renewing contracts because of test results 

What are some testtaking strategies you can teach students for HST? 

sleep, breakfast, study follow directions carefully read each item, passages, information carefully manage testtaking time easier items first eliminate options before answering check answers after completing test 

What does a positively skewed distribution tell you about the scores? 

majority of scores fall below the middle of the score distribution there are many low scores, but few high scores 

[image]
positively or negatively skewed?


[image]
positively skewed
many low scores, few high scores
most scores fall below the middle
tail is toward the positive end of curve


[image]
positively or negatively skewed?


[image]
negatively skewed
many high scores, few low scores
scores lump above middle
tail is toward neg. end of curve


[image]
  
1. 2. 3.
what distribution, and label mean, median, mode


[image]
  
1. 2. 3.
positively skewed
1. mode 2. median 3. mean


[image]
  
1. 2. 3.
what distribution, and label mean, median, mode


[image]
  
1. 2. 3.
negatively skewed
1.mean 2. median 3. mode


Which measure of CT is most frequently used? 


Which is not affected by extreme scores, the median or the mean? 

median represents the middle better when scores are skewed 

What are 2 modes in a distribution called? 


what are 3 or more modes in a distribution called? 


If each score in a dist. occurs with equal frequency, what is the mode? 


What is the least stable measure of CT? 

mode (a few scores can influence significantly) 

In a normal distribution, which measure of CT has the most value? 

none, they are all the same value (all reach the same highest points on the bell curve) 

If the mean is 47, the median is 54, an mode is 59, what is the shape of the distribution? 

negatively skewed goes in same order they are listed 

What does the semiinterquartile range do? 

prevents extreme scores from influencing the sensitivity of a range (such as if everyone scores in the 40s but one person scored a 90)
only the middle 50% is computed, top and bottom 25%s are left out 

What does each quartiles in SIQR mean? 

Q1 is the point below which 25% of scores lie Q2 is the median, or 50% of scores Q3 is the top 25% percent of scores 

What is the most commonly used estimate of variability? 


What is the most accurate measure of variability? 

Standard Deviation includes all scores in a distribution 


how much a single estimated score actually describes all scores within the range 

What do large and small score values represent in SD? 

large SD means more variability, smaller SD means less 

How can you tell the strength of a correlation? 

how close the numbers are to 1.0 or +1.0 

What does the sign (/+) tell us about a correlation? 

whether it is negative or positive 

What does a correlation of .00 mean? 

there is no correlation at all, high and lows in one are associated with highs and lows in another 

How do you tell pos or neg correlation from scatterplots? 

the direction of the slope from left to right is negative (pointing down) from right to left is positive (up) 

“Does the test measure what it is supposed to test?” is asking about… 


“Does the test yield the same or similar score scores consistently?” is asking about… 


“Does the test score closely approximate an individuals true level of ability, skill or aptitude?” is asking about… 


Why must a test have validity? 

To show that it measures what it says it measures (such as a 3rd grade math test actually testing 5th grade math, or even a math test actually testing reading skills) 

If someone inspects test questions to see if they correspond to what should be covered by the test, they are looking at what kind of validity? 


What is the problem with content validity? 

hard to tell if construct tests are valid because they are abstract only tells if the test LOOKS valid but it might be measuring something else (such as guessing ability,reading skills, etc) 

What are the three main forms of validity? 

content validity criterionrelated validity construct validity 

If matching test to the standards, what validity is it? 

content validity making sure what is meant to be testing is actually being tested 

What is concurrent validity? 

The correlation between two tests that measure the same thing when given to the same people 

What is the difference between Construct validity and other forms of validity? 

Content, Concurrent, and predictive all measure against something else (standards, other tests, future scores) while Construct measure something that is hard to test or hasn’t been tested before 

What evidence is each of these compared to? Content validity Concurrent validity predictive validity 

Content: test compared to standards or objectives Concurrent: test compared to other tests of same thing Predictive: test scores compared to future scores or abilities 

Which type of validity is evidence for alignment with curriculum? 

content validity making sure test matches the standards and curriculum 

What does reliability tell you? 

consistency with which a test yields the same rank for individuals who take the test more than once (think broken watch example) 

What are the types of reliability? 

TestRetest Alternate forms Internal consistency 
