C 130
Piaget argued that cognitive development involves what?
major transformations in the way knowledge is organized
Vygotsky believed that cognitive development represents what?
changes in the cultural tools children use to make sense of their world
Piaget proposed that two basic principles guide children’s intellectual development ….
organization and adaptation
as children mature what happens to their knowledge schemes?
they are integrated and reorganized into more complex systems that are better adapted to their environment.
adaptation of knowledge schemes occurs through the process of ….
assimilation and accommodation
Piaget proposed that development follows what?
an invariant sequence
early childhood is characterized by what two stages?
sensorimotor and preoperational stages
Sensorimotor period …
children acquire schemes for goal directed behavior and object permanence
Preoperational stage …
children begin to use words, numbers, gestures, and images to represent objects in their environment
elementary and secondary schools are characterized by what two stages?
concrete operational stage and formal operational stage
how do core knowledge theories differ from Piaget’s theories?
in beliefs about how children develop understandings of important domains in knowledge early in life and separately from one another (physics, biology, psychology)
Neo Piagetian theories differ from Piaget’s theories how?
they attempt to add greater specificity to Piaget’s theory while maintaining its basic assumption that cognitive development is qualitative and stagelike
what do neo piagetian theorist examine?
the role of children’s information processing capabilities in explaining developmental changes
Piaget’s major contributions to education (4)
1- knowledge must be actively constructed by the child 2- educators should help children learn how to learn 3- learning activities should be matched to the child’s level of conceptual development 4- peer interactions play an important role in the child’s cognitive development
Vygotsky places a stronger emphasis on what?
social interaction
Vygotsky – knowledge is not individually constructed …
but co-constructed btwn 2 people
remembering, problem solving, planning, and abstract thinking what kind of origin?
social
(V) elementary cognitive functions are transformed into higher mental function thru what?
interactions with more knowledgeable adults and peers
internalization
process of construction an internal representation of physical actions or mental operations that first occur in social interactions
internalizing elements of social interactions …
children develop ways to regulate their own behavior and thinking
V thought what was the most important psychological tool that influences children’s cognitive development…
language
accommodation
P, describes how children change existing schemes by altering old ways of thinking or acting to fit new information in their environment
adaption
one of 2 basic principles referred to by P as invariant functions; the ability of all organisms to adapt their mental representations or behavior to fit environmental demands
animism
P children’s inclination during the preoperational stage to attribute intentional states and human characteristics to inanimate objects
assimilation
P, how children mold new information to fit their existing schemes in order to better adapt to their environment
centration
a developmental limitation present during the preoperational stage that makes young children focus their attention on only one aspect usually the most salient of a stimulus
circular reactions
P patterns of behavior during the sensorimotor stage that are repeated over and over again as goal directed actions
classification
a mental operation acieved during the concrete operational stage that allows children to impose order in their environment by grouping things and ideas according to common elements
concrete operational stage
the period of life from 7 to 11 years old when P believed children’s thinking becomes less rigid and they begin to use mental operations such as classification, conservation and seriation to think about events and objects in their environment
deferred imitation
P in representational thinking in which children are able to repeat a simple sequence of actions or sounds after the sequence is observed
equilibration
P concept that refers to out innate tendency of self regulation to keep out mental representations in balance by adjusting them to maintain organizations and stability in our environment thru the processes of accommodation and assimilation
formal operational stage
11-12 children begin to apply formal rules of logic and gain the ability to think abstractly and reflectively (real to possible)
hierarchical classification
a mental operation learned during concrete operational stage that allows children to organize concepts and objects according to how they relate to one another in a building block fashion
horizontal decalage
P’s term for children’s inconsistency in thinking within a developmental stage
hypothetico-deductive thinking
a form of formal logic achieved during the formal operational stage P id[ed as the ability to generate and test hypotheses in a logical systematic matter
inner speech
one of 3 stages of children’s use of language id-ed by V during which children internalize their self verbalizations and are able to manipulate language in their heads to think about problem solutions and action sequence. a self regulatory way to guide thinking and behavior.
instructional conversations
collaborative process between teachers and students used to teach reading comprehension. relating text to own experience
internalization
V’s term for the process of constructing a mental representation of external physical actions or cognitive operations that occur through social interaction
intuitive theory
P’s explanation for young children’s attempts to explain natural phenomena by using their personal experiences (animism)
logico-math knowledge
P’s theory, the type of knowledge consisting of the mental construction of relationships involved in the concrete operations of seriation, classification, and conservation, as well as carious formal operations that emerge in adolescence
matrix classification
P- a concept achieved during the concrete operational stage that involves ordering items by two or more attributes such as both size and color
metacognition
knowledge of one’s own thinking
object permanence
P’s term for an infant’s understanding during the sensorimotor stage that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen or acted on
physical knowledge
one of 3 types of knowledge as described by O, knowing the attributes of objects such as their number, color, size, and shape, knowledge is acquired by acting on objects, experimenting, and observing reactions
preoperational stage
the period of life from 2-7 when P believed children demonstrate an increased ability to use symbols to represent real objects in their environment
propositional logic
a form of formal logic achieved during the formal operational stage that P id-ed as the ability to dram a logical inference btwn 2 statements or premises in an if then relationship
realism
according to P children’s inclination during the preoperational stage to confuse physical and psychological events in their attempts to develop theories of the internal world of the mind
reflective abstraction
a concept that allows children to use information they already have acquired to form new knowledge
representational thinking
using words that stand for real objects
scaffolding
the process by which adults provide support to a child who is learning to master a task or problem by performing or directing those elements of the task that are beyond the child’s ability
scheme
also referred to as schema in some research areas, in P’s theory the physical actions, mental operations, concepts, or theories people use to organize and acquire information about their world.
sensorimotor stage
birth-2 when P believed children acquire the building blocks of symbolic thinking and human intelligence
seriation
P- understanding that develops during the concrete operational stage that involves the ability to order objects in a logical progression, such as shorts to tallest
social constructivist
an approach to learning and teaching based on V’s theory of development
social knowledge
P’s theory – this type of knowledge is derived in part thru interaction with others (math words and signs, languages, musical notes)
social speech
one of 3 stages of children’s use of language id-ed by V that is used primarily for communicative purposes in which thought and language have separate functions
zone of proximal development
V’s theory regarding children’s potential for intellectual growth rather than their actual level of development; the gap btwn what children do on their own and what they can so with the assistance of others
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