Teaching Reading – Quiz One
Belief system
represents a teacher’s informed philosophy of reading and learning to read
Best practice
requires teachers to use multiple perspectives as they plan and enact literacy instruction in their classroom
(Jean Piaget’s theory of) Constructivism
provides a compelling explanatory framework for understanding the acquisition of knowledge
Professional Knowledge
knowledge acquired form an ongoing study of the practice of teaching
Alphabetic principle
suggests that there is a correspondence between letters and sounds
Letters
graphemes
Sounds
phonemes
Orthographic knowledge
knowledge of likely spelling patterns
Schemata
reflect the prior knowledge, experiences, conceptual, understands, attitudes, values, skills, and procedures a reader brings to a reading situation
Metacognition
knowledge about and regulation of some form of cognitive activity
Self-knowledge
the knowledge students have about themselves as readers and learners
task knowledge
knowledge of reading tasks and the strategies that are appropriate given a task at hand
Self-monitoring
the ability of students to monitor reading by keeping track of how well they are comprehending
Graphophonemic System
provides readers with a major source of information; speech sounds.
Syntactic system
readers possess knowledge about how language works – grammatical relationships within sentence patterns
Semantic System
stores the schemata that readers bring to a text in terms of background knowledge, etc
Bottom-up models
assumes that the process of translating print to meaning begins with the printed word and is initiated by decoding graphic symbols into sound
Decoding
the conscious or automatic processing and translating of the printed word into speech
Top-down models
assumes that the construction of textual meaning depends on the reader’s prior knowledge and experience
Interactive models
assumes that translating print to meaning involves using both prior knowledge and print and that the process is initiated by the reader making predictions about meaning and/or decoding graphic symbols
Comprehensive approach
an approach to instruction that adheres to the belief that teachers need to possess a strong knowledge of multiple methods for teaching reading so they can create the appropriate balance of methods needed for the children they teach
Units of language
categories of written language, ranging from the smallest unit, letters, to the largest unit, the whole text selection, that are emphasized for instructional purposes
Basal Reading approach
a major approach to reading that occupies the central and broadest position on the instructional continuum. built on scope and sequence foundations and traditionall associated with bottom-up theory, basal programs have been modified in recent years with the inclusion of language experience and literature activities
Language-experience approach
a major approach to reading, located on the holistic side of the instructional continuum, tied closely to interactive or top-down theory. often considered a beginning reading approach, connections between reading and writing are becoming more prevalent in classrooms
Integrated language arts approach
an instructional approach in which reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing activities are connected through the use of literature
Literature-based instruction
approach to reading that encourages students to select their own trade books, with the session follwed by teacher-student conferences at which students may be asked to read aloud from their selections
Technology-based instruction
an instructional approach that utilizes computers and their many capabilities
Instructional scaffolding
providing enough instructional guidance and support for students so that they will be successful in their use of reading strategies
Explicit strategy instruction
instruction that makes clear the what, why, when, and how of skill and strategy use
Literacy development
the stages of language experience
Environmental print
print that surrounds children in their everyday lives such as traffic signs restaurant signs, charts, and labels
Family literacy
how family interactions influence the language development of young children and provide the context in which they learn to read and write
Literate environment
an environment that fosters and nurtures interest in and curiosity about written language and supports children’s efforts to become readers and writers
Scribbling
one of the primary forms of written expression; the fountainhead for writing that occurs from the moment a child grasps and uses a writing tool
Controlled Scribbling
ages 3-6 movement away from early scrawls
Name Scribbling
representational to the child writer – they mean something
Invented spelling
temporary, a name given to children’s written words before they have learned the rules of spelling
Developmentally appropriate practice
the matching or gearing of the reading curriculum to children’s developing abilities
Literacy play centers
designated classroom area designed around familiar contexts or places and furnished with props to provide an environment in which children may play with print on their own terms
Pretend play
the spontaneous creation of stories – including setting, characters, goal, plot, and resolution- during children’s play
Language-experience activities
activities using the natural language of children and their background experiences to share and discuss events; listen to and tell stories; dictate words, sentences, and stories; and write independently
Dramatic play
unstructured, spontaneous, and expressive classroom activities requiring little planning
Shared reading
strategy allowing all children in a classroom or small group to participate in the reading of a story, usually through the use of a big book with large print and illustrations
High-stakes testing
the practice of using a single test score for making education-related or personnel decisions
Authentic assessment
asking students to perform task that demonstrate sufficient knowledge and understanding of a subject
Retelling
an assessment in which students identify and discuss integral parts of a story
Formative assessment
an assessment that is used to gather information for teachers to adapt instruction to meet students’ needs
Self-assessment
an assessment in which students identify their strengths and weaknesses to help provide a plan for intervention
Standardized reading tests
a formal test of reading ability administered according to specific, unvarying directions; usually norm-referenced and machine-scored
Reliability
consistency of test results over time and administrations
Validity
the accuracy with which a test measures what it is designed to measure – the most importnat characteristic of a test
Survey tests
broad type of test that measures general performance only
Diagnostic test
formal assessment intended to provide detailed information about individual students’ strengths and weaknesses
Criterion-referenced tests
informal tests devised to measure individual student achievement according to a specific criterion for performance
Informal reading inventory (IRI)
an individually administered informal test, usually consisting of graded word lists, graded reading passages, and comprehension questions that assess how students orally and silently interact with print
Miscue analysis
informal assessment of oral reading errors to determine the extent to which readers use and coordinate graphic-sound, syntactic, and semantic information
Running record
method for marking miscues of beginning readers while they read
Portfolios
a compilation of an individual student’s work in reading and writing, devised to reveal literacy progress as well as strengths and weaknesses
Digital portfolios
a multimedia collection of student work stored and reviewed in digital format
Anecdotal notes
brief, written observations of revealing behavior that a teacher considers significant to understanding a child’s literacy learning
Hearing vs. Listening
body function vs. a skill that is developed with practice
Listening styles
auditory, visual, kinestetic
5 Pillars of Effective Reading instruction
1. Teacher Knowledge
2. Classroom Assessment
3. Effective Instruction
4. Differentiating Instruction
5. Family and Community Connections
Receptive
what you understand, decoding
Expressive
encoding, moving it forward
Phonology
the study of sounds
Syntax and grammar
rules of how language works – sentences/paragraphs
Pragmatics
interact – knowing how language works – purpose in society
Prosodic
intonation, stress, juncture
Articulate
rime, onset
Mrs. G’s philosophy
Developmentally appropriate concepts, Experientially engaging strategies, Funtionally representative life skills
Raw
correlate score with age
Percentiles
you scored —% better
Stanines
average midpoint 1-4 5 6-9
Reading Readiness
jump right into a book
Emergent Literacy
reading starts at birth a process of layering and scaffolding
Print Concepts
basic, short sentences per page – sound it out, fonts, recognize individual letters
Environmental print
stop sign, cereal boxes- eye level
Family Literacy
familiar in home vocab
Listening Rules
1. Sit in a brain alert position
2. Watch the person who is talking
3. Keep your mouth and body quiet
Listening Cycle Method 1
1. Alert to topic of discussion
2. Utilize prior knowledge
3. Acknowledge students input
4. Arouse curiosity by seeking class questions and keep them in mind
Listening Learning Cycle #2
1. Have students complete individual written forms
2. Example: KWLM charts ( I know, I want to know.. etc)
Rime
the part of the letter pattern in a word that includes the vowel and any consonants that follow
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