Chap. 6 (pp.207-221, 230-231)
attachment
the emotional bond that children form with their caregivers at about 7-9 months of age
4 signs of attachment
1. seek to be near primary caregivers
2. show distress if separated from their caregivers
3. happy when reunited with the person to whom they are attached
4. orient their actions to the caregiver; ex. when playing they will listen for the caregiver’s voice
Freud’s Drive-Reduction Explanation
babies become attached to the person who gives them food or satisfies their biological needs; false according to the terry cloth mother monkey study
Harlow conclusion from the monkey terry cloth experiment
tactile sensations are important for healthy development and attachment more so than attachment based on who feeds the baby
detachment
For Bowlby, the state of indifference toward others experienced by children who have been separated from their caregiver for an extended time and have not formed a new stable relationship
Phases of Attachment
1. the preattachment phase
2. attachment-in-the-making phase
3. clear-cut attachment phase
4. reciprocal relationship phase
Preattachment Phase
(birth to six weeks)
infants remain in close contact with their caregivers and do not seem to get upset when left alone with an unfamiliar caregiver
attachment-in-the-making phase
(6 weeks to 6-8 months)
infants respond differently to strangers and show preferences for family and signs of wariness when confronted with unfamiliar objects and people
clear-cut attachment phase
(6-8 months to 18-24 months)
mother becomes a secure base (babies make exploratory excursions and return to base); full-blown separation anxiety; when the distance between the caregiver and child becomes too great one or the other is likely to act upon it to reduce distance- attachment regulates the physical and emotional relationship
reciprocal relationship phase
(18-24 months and older)
they begin to share responsibility for maintaining the equilibrium of the attachment system
internal working model
a mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences with their caregivers and that they use to guide their interactions with their caregivers and others
secure attachment
a pattern of attachment in which children play comfortably and react positively to a stranger as long as their mother is present; they become upset when their mother leaves and are unlikely to be consoled by a stranger, but they calm down as soon as the mother returns
avoidant attachment
the attachment pattern in which infants are indifferent to where their mothers are sitting, may or may not cry when their mother leaves, are as likely to be comforted by strangers as their mother, and are indifferent when their mothers return to the room
resistant attachment
The attachment pattern in which infants stay close to their mother and appear anxious even when their mother is near; they become very upset when their mother leaves and are not comforted by her return; simultaneously seek renewed contact with their mother and resist their mother’s efforts to comfort them
disorganized attachment
The insecure attachment pattern in which infants seem to lack a coherent method for dealing with stress; they may behave in seemingly contradictory ways, such as screaming for their mother but moving away when she approaches; in extreme cases, they may seem dazed
What factors are associated with insecure attachment?
low SES
marital discord
difficult family conditions leading to depression
witnessing violence or unpredictable changes in care
What matters more in terms of the child’s healthy development and attachment?
a. quality of mothering and SES
b. time spent in a nonparental child care setting
A. quality of mothering and SES
Orphanages (study findings)
1. effect depends on age at adoption (4 months no problems, 8 months residual effects shown)
2. study showed that when returned with biological parents, kids did not form as good of a relationship as they did with adoptive parents?
Reactive Attachment Disorder
extremely inappropriate social relating:
1. the child engages in indiscriminate and excessive efforts to receive comfort and affection from any adult, even strangers
2. the child is extremely reluctant to seek or accept comfort and affection, especially when distressed, even from familiar adults
What percent of infants in Africa have been orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDS?
15%
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