is a tendancy of any topical substance to cause or worsen a buildup of dead cells in the follicle leading to a development of a comedo.
What is carbomers?
Certain vehicle ingredients added to thicken products or help suspend ingredients that are hard to mix into a product.
How do you describe preservatives?
Important functional ingredients in many skin care and cosmetic products. Preservatives prevent bacteria and other microbes from living in products. without preservatives products could easily be contaminated with bacteria fungi molds or other microbes that could cause disease in a person using the product.
What are 3 basic forms of cleansers..
What is the name of detegent type foaming cleanser w/neutral or slightly acidic PH
A face wash
What skin type uses a face wash type of cleanser;
Oily or combination skin type
What is a cleansing lotion?
It is a water based emulsion for normal and combination skin.
What is a cleansing cream?
Oil based emulsion used primarily to dissolve makeup and dirt (good for dry or mature skin)
What are different types of toners?
Freshners have the lowest alcohol (0 to 4%) and are beneficial for dry and mature skin as well as for sensitive skin.
Toners have an alcohol content of 5 to 15% and are designed for sue on normal and combination skin. They tone, or tighten the skin.
Astrigent may have an alcohol content of up to 35% and are used for oily and acne skin.
What does exfoliation mean?
The term exfoliation refers to the peelign or sloughing of the horney layer of the skin.
What are 2 types of exfoliation?
What is mechanical exfoliation?
It is the method of physically rubbing dead cells of the skin(granualar scrubs, brushing machines)
What is chemical exfoliation?
In a chemical exfoliation dead skin cells are dissolved by chemical agents (AHA, BHA and enzymes)
What is the function of the clay mask?
They draw impuritties to the surface fo the skin as they dry and tighten. Clay also stimulates circulation and temporarily contracts the pores of the skin.
What is cream or gel mask designed for?
They are designed to nourish and moisturize the skin rather than deep cleanse it.
What are paraffin wax masks designed for?
They are used to warm the skin and promote penetration of ingredients deeper into the skin through the heat trapped under the surface.
What are the contraindications for paraffin masks?
Skin with capillary problems
What skin type would benefit from modelage masks(thermal or heating mask)?
Dry, mature skin or skin that is dull looking.
What are serums?
Serums are made w/vitamins, lipids or antioxidants, and are usually thinner liquids. They are chemically formulated with smaller molecules that are able to penetrate further into the skin. They are applied underneath moisturizers.
What are hydrators formulated with?
Hydrators are formulated with humectants that attact water to the skin.
What is a treatment cream designed for? (night creams)
They are designed to moisturize and conodition the skin especially during sleep, when normal tissue repair is taking place.
What are ampoules?
Ampoules are small, sealed vials containing a single application of a highgly concetrated extract in a water or oil base.
What ingredients benefit the skin?
Active ingredients (performance ingredients)
Which ingredients don’t work on the skin, but perform a function that helps the product?
Inactive ingredients (functional ingredients)
What do antioxidants do?
They neutralize free radicals before they attach themselves to the cell membrane and destroy the cell.
What are binders?
substances that bind, hold products together (glycerine)
What do emollients do?
Lie on the surface of the skin to prevent water loss, smooth and soften the skin.
What are healing agents?
Substances such as chamomile or aloe that heal the skin.
What do humectants do?
They draw moisture to the skin and soften the surface.
What do lubricants do?
They coat the skin and reduce friction.
What do preservatives do?
Kill bacteria and prevent products from spoiling
What are solvents?
Substances that dissolve other ingredients.
What do sufactants do?
Allow the cosmetic to be able to slip across onto the skin.
What are vehicles?
Spreading agents and other chemicals necessary to the formulation of a cosmetic (delivery system)
What ingredient can be a powerful antiseptic and solvent?
What is the name of the powder obtained from sodium borate?
Which ingredient is used as a super moisturizer?
Which ingredient is an excellent skin softener?
Glycerin (humectant and skin softner)
Which herb is commonly used in solution with alcohol and water as an astringent?
What is used as a dusting powder and in ointment for some skin conditions?
What is the name of the sea product containing minerals and phytohormones?
What ingredients are the basis for aromatherapy?
What is used in cold cream, hand lotions because of its ability to help heal wounds and skin ulcers and to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue?
What is derived from the chamomile plant and is effective on sensitive skin because of its anti-inflammatory and sootthing properties?
What is the drying ingredient with antibacterial properties?
What is anti-inflammatory plant extract?
Calendula (best for acne)
What agency is responsible for enforcing rules and regulations regarding products for public consumption?
In what order should all ingredients be listed on the lable of the product?
Descending order, according to the amount of the ingredient the product contains.
Where should you send consumer complaints?
The manufacturer and CC the FDA
What agency regulates the advertising of cosmetics?
The FTC – Federal Trade Commision
Which of the following soften and smooth the skin:
What attracts moisture to the skin’s surface?
If the client is allergic to sea weed, what can’t you use?
Anything containing algae
The FDA has jurisdiction over ?
What is a chelating agent?
A chemicaal that is added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of the preservative. Chelating agents work by breaking down the cell walls of bacteria and other microbes.
Name all the delivery systems
Ingredients that improve cell metabolism and oxygenation
What are peptides?
Peptides are chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in teh skin’s appearance. Peptides have been shown to help aging skin by stimulating the fibroblasts, the cells that produce collagen to improve skin firmness and soften wrinkles.
Name all the masks we know
Non Setting Mask
Algae or Seaweed masks
Custom designed mask
What is an esthetician’s most important tool?
The quality of the skin can be _____________ improved with professional skin care products.
Skin care ingredients can be studied at a ______________ level.
How many different products must you know about to effectively practice professional skin care?
A broad spectrum of products.
Cosmetics are distinguished from drugs by this act.
Cosmetic Act of 1938
According to the cosmetic Act of 1938, products that are made to affect the structures and/or functions of the human body are:
What category of ingredients cause the actual changes in the appearance of the skin?
Products that avoid cloggin pores or causing comedones are called
Anhydrous products include:
a Lip balms
b Petrolatum-based products
c oil serums
d all answers
Substances used to lubricate and moisturize the skin are called?
Substances that coat the skin and reduce friction belong to this category.
Ingredients that are beneficial to dry skin are?
A Fatty Acids
C Rubbing Alcohol
D Fatty materials
______________ include oleic acid, steric acid and caprylic acid.
Surfactants improve ______________________
______________ reduce surface tension of dirt and oils on the skin’s surface and form an emulsion to lift them from the skin.
Substances that are mixable with water are called
A treatment where aromatherapy oils are inhaled for their therapeutic benefits is called?
Products that enhance the effectiveness of a preservative are called?
Which of the following substances adds color to cosmetics and are certified by the FDA?
Substances used to adjust the pH of products are called?
A solvent is a
Substance that dissolves another substance
Plant based ingredients are?
Which of the following are used as natural exofoliants?
A jojoba beads
B Ground Nuts
C Various seeds
D All answers
Which acids have a beneficial chemical effects on teh skin?
AHAs and BHAs
Identify the hydroxy acids:
A Glycolic and Latic
B Citric and Salicylic
C Malic and Tartaric
D All answers
Which acids exfoliate by loosening the bonds between cells in teh surface of the corneum?
What ingredients dissolve kerattin proteins in the surface of the corneum?
You can lighten/brighten your skin with what products?
Lighteners and Brighteners
Which of the following products should your clients apply without fail after an exfoliation service?
Antioxidants play this role in skincare
neutralize free radicals
Which ingredients help strengthen the immune system and stimulate the metabolism?
Poly and Beta glucans
The functions of glycoproteins include?
enhancing cellular metabolism, which boosts oxygen uptake in the cell.
Closed, bilayered spheres that encapsulate ingredients, target their delivery tto specific tissues of the skin, and control their release are called?
Skin care products use vitamins, such as C and E for their ______________ properties.
Sunscreens use these 2 types of ingredients.
natural and chemical
A Strengthens the immune system
B removes impaired cells
C Stimulates Cell Repair
D is an anti-irritant
Stimulates cell repair
Retinoic acid ____________ the skin.
The FDA regulates these important aspects of cosmetics.
A Safety issues
B Claims made for a product
C Labeling issues
D All answers
D all answers
Claims made for a product
When the skin becomes excessively red or the client complains of a burning you should immediently
apply cool water
Performing a test patch is the best way to do what?
avoid allergic reactions
Which of the products below is formed by decomposition of oils or fats, it is an excellent skin softener and humectant and a very strong water binder.
Willow bark, wintergreen and sweet birch are sources of which acid?
Sulfur in skin care products
reduces oil glands activity and; dissolves the skin’s dry dead cells
Which of the following is marine based?
C Kojic acid
Which of these functions pertain to witch hazel?
D all answers
D all answers
D All answers
d all answers
When you use plant extracts for therapeutic benefits, it is called?
The sense of smell pertains to which system?
Vitamin C Ester in skin care preparations stimulates?
Identify the natural ingredients that can positively impact mature skin:
A Green tea
B Squalene oil
D All answers
D All answers
boosts the effects of other antioxidants
What do topical ingredients need to most effectively treat the skin?
High tech delivery systems
Which of the following represent categories of skin care.
A exfoliants and moisturizers
B toners serums and ampoules
C masks sunscreens and hydrators
D all answers
When products are rinsed clean w/water and don’t strip the skins natural acid mantle, they are considered ideal as
Cleansing gels are detergent type foaming cleaners for
A product that is soley used to remove eye makeup or heavier makeup is called.
What is the function of a freshener?
Restores the skins natural pH after cleansing and hydrating the skin.
The skin’s ability to retain moistures and lipids.
Products that aid in extractions are called?
Peeling off the top layer of the stratum corneum is done by an
Contraindications for using harsh peeling techniques include
acne prone skin
Keratolytic enzymes help speed up the break down of ?
Benefits derived from masks and packs include
The 2 types of masks are
setting and non setting
Premature skin aging due to irritation occurs because?
collagenase to break down collagen
Masks that contain oils emollients and humectants are called
Thermal masks containing gypsm are also called
Single applications of highly concentrated extracts in a water or oil base are called
Lotions hydrators and cremes are all referred to as