Chapter 2
What is culture?
Culture can be defines as the ensemble of knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people.
What is a persons worldview?
A persons worldview is their perception of the world and his or her place within it. The worldview reflects a person’s beliefs about the meaning, operation, and essence of the world.
What are ethical standards?
Ethical standards are the criteria that help differentiate right from wrong. The three ethical standards are virtue, utility, and categorical imperative(treat others how you would like to be treated).
What are environmental ethics?
Environmental ethics is the application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and nonhuman entities.

What is anthropocentrism?

 

Anthropocentrism describes a human- centered view of our relationship with the environment. An anthropocentrist denies or ignors the notion that nonhuman entities can have rights.
What is biocentrism?
Biocentrism ascribes value to certain living things or the biome realm in general.
What is eco-centrism?
Eco-centrism judges the actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of whole ecological systems, which consists of living and nonliving elements and the relationships between them.
What is conservation ethic?
Conservation ethic holds that people should put natural resources to use but also that we have responsibility to manage them wisely.
What is deep ecology?
Deep ecology is a movement established in the 1970’s. The movements rested on the principals of “self-realization” and biocentric equality.
What is eco feminisim all about?
Eco feminism argues that a patriarchal structure of society is a root couse of both social and environmental problems.
What is environmental justice?
Environmental justice involves the fair and equatable treatment of all people with respect to the environmental policy and practice, regardless of their income, race or ethnicity.
What is GDP?
GDP or gross domestic product is the total monetary value of final goods and services it produces each year. However GDP does not account for nonmarket values.
What is GPI?
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What are nonmarket values?
Nonmarket values are values that are not usually included in the price of a good or service.
What is contingent valuations?
Contingent valuations use surveys to determin how much people are willing to pay to protect or restore a resource.
Modern Non Market Values

Use value- worth we give to things we use directly

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Option value- worth we give to things that we do not use now but might use later

Aesthetic value- worth we give to things for their beauty or emotional appeal

Cultural value- worth we give to things that sustain or help define our culture

Scientific value- worth we give to things that may be the subject of scientific research

Educational value- worth we give to things that may teach us about ourselves in the world

Existence value- worth we give to things simply because the exist, even though we may never experience them directly

What is ecolabeling?
Ecolabeling serves to tell the consumers which brands use environmentally benign processes.

(Blank) is a method used by manufacturers that tell consumers which brands use manufacturing processes that are environmentally beneficial.


a. ecolabeling

b. whitewashing

c. permit trading

d. deep ecology

e. cap and trade

A

Ecolabeling is a method used by manufacturers that tell consumers which brands use manufacturing processes that are environmentally beneficial.

“Ecosystem services” include (blank)


a. pollination of crop plants

b. genetically modifying food

c. creating pollution

d. global warming

e. erosion

A

“Ecosystem services” include pollination of crop plants.

Roxanna only invests in companies that use renewable energy and consider teh environmental affects of their actions. This approach is know as


a. land ethics

b. biocentrism

c.superstition

d. socially responsible investing

e. sustainable economics

D

Roxanna only invests in companies that use renewable energy and consider teh environmental affects of their actions. This approach is know as sustainable economics.

The three facets of the sustainability triange are


a. winkie, blinki, and nod

b. economic, social, and environment

c. ethical, environmental, cultural

d. neoclassical, classical, negative

e. anthropogentic, biocentric, ecocentric

B

The three facets of the sustainability triange are economic, social and environment.

Roxana only invests in companies that use renewable energy and consider the environmental affects of their actions. This approach s known as


a. socially responsible investing

b. land ethics

c. sustainable economics

d. superstition

e. biocentrism

A

Roxana only invests in companies that use renewable energy and consider the environmental affects of their actions. This approach s known as socially responsible investing.

The EPA defines (blank) as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regualtions, and policies.


a. environmental justice

b. deep ecology

c. virtue

d. land ethics

e. socialism

A

The EPA defines environmental justice as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regualtions, and policies.

GPI is an acronym for


a. Genuine Progress Indicator

b. Gas Price Index

c. Global Pollution Index

d. Good Price Indicator

e. Good Parent Index

A

GPI is an acronym for Genuine Progress Indicator.

The GPI for the United States


a. has increased dramatically since 1950

b. far exceeds that of the rest of the world

c. includes a negative adjustment for parenting

d. increases when fossil fuel use increases

e. includes a positive adjustment for parenting

E

The GPI for the United States has increased dramatically since 1950.

The total monetary value of goods and services produced in a country each year is the 


a. GDP

b. GPI

c. GNP

d. GAP

e. GDP

E

 The total monetary value of goods and services produced in a country each year is GDP. 

A(n) (blank) is best defined as one who evaluates an action based in its impacts on human heath, economic cost and benefits, and aesthetic concerns.


a. ethnocentrist

b. biocentrist

c. ecocentrist

d. anthropocentrist

e. market economist

D

A(n) anthropocentrist is best defined as one who evaluates an action based in its impacts on human heath, economic cost and benefits, and aesthetic concerns.

A(n) (blank) is best defined as one who considers abiotic environmental impacts when considering an action.


a. market economist

b. ecocentrist

c. biocentrist

d. ethnocentrist

e. anthropocentrist

B

A(n) ecocentrist is best defined as one who considers abiotic environmental impacts when considering an action.

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