Chapter 3
Response
Specific behavior that an individual exhibits
Stimulus or Stimuli
Specific object or event that influences an individuals learning or behavior
Antecedent Stimuli
Stimulus that increases the liklihood that a particular response will follow
Operant Conditioning
Form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement
Reinforcer
Consequence of a response that leads to increased frequency of the response
Reinforcement
Act of following a response with a reinforcer
Primary reinforcer
Consequence that satisfies a biologically built-in-need

Ex: Food, water, warmth, ozygen

Secondary Reinforcer
Consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer

Ex: Praise, money, good grades, trophies

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Positive Reinforcer
Phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus
Extrinsic Reinforcer
Reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, rather than from within the learner
Intrinsic reinforcer
Reinforcer provided by oneself or inherent in a task being performed
Delay of Gratification
Ability to forego small, immediate reinforcers to obtain larger ones later
Negative Reinforcement
A response increases as a result of the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus

Ex. Sally is anxious about a chapter test in two weeks. To remove her anxiety, she studies for her test.

Punishment
Consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
Presentation Punishment
Presentation of a new stimulus, presumably one a learner find unpleasant

Ex: Extra running after basketball practice

Removal Punishment
Removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner finds desireable and doesn’t want to lose

Ex: Taking away a basketball player’s playing time in a game.

Model
Person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else
Modeling
Demonstrating a behavior for another; observing and imitating anothers behavior
Live Model
Individual whose behavior is directly observed in one’s immediate environment

Ex: parents, teachers, siblings, peers

Symbolic Model
Real or fictional character portrayed in the media that influences an observer’s behavior

Ex: professional athletes, celebrities

Prosocial Behaviors
Behavior directed toward promoting the well-being of another
Vicarious reinforcement
Response increases in frequency when another (observed) person is reinforced for that response
Vicarious Punishment
Response decreases in frequency when another (observed) person is punished for that response
Incentive
Hoped-for, but not guaranteed future consequence of behavior

Ex: Sally studies for her test but an A is not guaranteed

Situated learning and cognition
Knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills aquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited if any use in other contexts

 

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