Chapter 3 Vocabulary
Matter
all materials in the universe has mass and occupies space
Atoms
Basic units of matter
Element
A chemical substance with a given set of properties that cannot be broken down into substances with other properties
nucleus
central cord, containing particles called protons and neutrons
molecule
a combination of two or more atoms of the same type or of different types joined by covalent bonds
compound
a substance composed of atoms two or more different elements
hydrocarbons
are organic compounds containing only haydrogen and carbon
Solution
a mixture in which all the ingredients are evenly distributed
macromolecules
A molecule containing a very large number of atoms
Proteins
are polymers that serve many functions in organisms
Nucleci Acid
are macromolecules that direct production
cardonhydrates
are polymers that consists of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipids
are chemically diverse group of macromolecule that are classified together because they do not dissolve in water
pH
the acidity or akalinity  of a solution
Erosion
The process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents
geosphere
made of rock of all Earth’s Surface
Lithosphere
The crust and upper mantle of the earth
biosphere
The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the earth or other planet occupied by living organisms.
atmosphere
consists of gases surrounding our planet
hydrosphere
encompass all water
crust
a thin layer of relatively cool rock that form Earth’s outer skin both on dry land and in the ocean
mantle
a layer of very hot but mostly solid rock
core
beneath the lower mantle
tectonic plates
As the asthenosphere moves, it drags along large plates of lithosphere
landforms
such as mountains above and beneath the ocean’s surface
deposition
the depositing of eroded soil at the new location
transpiration
the release of water vapor by plants through their leaves
evaporation
the conversion of a substance from liquid to gas
precipitation
water turn from the atmosphere such as rain or snow
condesation
a change in state from gas to liquid
aquifers
a body of premeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater
groundwater
fresh water found underground
law of coversation of matter
why the amount of matter in the enivorment stays the same as it flows through matter cycles,
nutrients
are matter oragnisms require for their life processes
biogeochemical cycles
nutrients circulate endlessy throughout the environment in complex cycle
Primary prodecures
are organisms, including plants and algae that produce their own food
photosynthesis
producers pull carbon dioxide out of their environment and combine it with water in the presence of sunlight
consumers
animals that eat other organisms
decomposer
organisms such as bacteria and fungi that break down wastes and dead organism
cellular respiration
the process by which organism s use oxygen to release the chemical energy of sugar and release CO2 and water
eutrophication
the addition of phosphorus to bodies of water can lead to an overgrowth of producers  usually algae
nitrogen fixation
the conversation of nitrogen gas into ammonia
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