Chapter 3,8,9,10
Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel ?
P waves
What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere ?
transform fault boundary
Why do earthquakes often cause damaging fires ?
Earthquake vibrations can break gas lines, water lines, and electrical lines
Tensional stresses commonly cause which of the following ?
normal faults
What volcanic feature is illustrated at A in Figure 10-2 ?
continental
What type of plate boundary resulted in the volcanic activity illustrated in Figure 10-2 ?
oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary
A fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall is a _______.
normal fault
What type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments ?
cinder cone
The Particles produced in volcanic eruptions are called ______.
pyroclastic material
What feature is labeled A in Figure 10-1 ?
pipe
What type of volcano is illustrated in Figure 10-1 ?
composite cone
A tectonic plate consists of ______.
the crust and uppermost mantle
Which of the following can be produced at an ocean-continental convergent boundary ?
continental volcanic arc
Earthquakes are usually associated with _________.
faults
What is the most abundant gas associated with volcanic activity ?
water vapor
An earthquake’s epicenter is ________.
the place on the surface directly above the focus
The richter mangnitude of an earthquake is determined from the _______.
measurement of the amplitude of the largest seismic waves
Which of the following factors helps determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or relatively quiet ?
all the above
A lava flow with a surface of rough, jagged blocks and sharp, angular projections is called a(n) _______.
aa flow
The broad, slightly dome-shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are ______.
shield volcanoes
Faults in which movement is mainly horizontal and parallel to the trend of the fault surface are called ______.
strike-slip faults
In figure 3-1, what process or processes would be occurring in the part of the rock cycle labeled E ?
compaction and cementation
In figure 3-1, what type of rock should occur in the part of the rock cycle labeled B ?
igneous
In figure 3-1, what type of rock should occur in the part of the rock cycle labeled F ?
sedimentary
According to the theory of the plate tectonics, _____.
the lithosphere is divided into plates
The Hawaiian Islands were formed when the Pacific Plate moved over ________.
a hot spot
A tsunami can occur when there is vertical movement at a fault under _____.
the ocean floor
Overall, which seismic waves are the most destructive ?
surface waves
What forms when one oceanic plate is forced beneath another plate ?
a subduction zone
when an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the _______.
focus
The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called _________.
Pangaea
Through which Earth layer are S waves NOT transmitted ?
outer core
One kind of evidence that supports Wegener’s hypothesis is that ______.
fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents
Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of plate boundary ?
Magma
Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of rock ?
Convergent continental-continental boundary
Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks ?
Earth’s interior
Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the ______.
Ring of Fire
What is the name of the major strike-slip fault in California ?
San Andreas Fault
According to Figure 8-1, when will the first P wave be received, if an earthquake epicenter is approximately 1800 kilometers from the seismic station ?
3.5 minutes after the earthquake
According to Figure 8-1, what is the distance between the seismic station and an earthquake epicenter , if the first S wave arrives 4.0 minutes after the first P wave ?
2500 kilometers
What are the primary factors that determine whether a volcano erupts explosively or relative quietly ?
Describe how an Igneous rock becomes a Sedimentary rock….
List three lines of evidence that supported the hypothesis of continental drift.
Compare and Contrast the movements and forces on a normal fault and a reverse fault.
Describe how P waves and S waves move and affect the movement of the material they pass over through.
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