Chapter 4
population doubling times
70/annual % growth = doubling time
Malthus
limits to growth: humans inevitably outstrip food supply and eventually collapse and are too lazy and immoral to voluntarily impose birth rates
Marx
population growth is a symptom, not a root cause, of poverty and social problems – the way to eliminate population growth is through social jusice
Neo-Malthusians
approaching/surpassed earth’s carrying capacity and should make population issues a first priority
first demographic world
less developed, poor, young, and rapidly growing: 80% of world population
second demographic world
wealthy, old, and mosyling shrinking
crude birth rate
number of births a year per thousand (not adjusted for population characteristics)
total fertility rate
number of children born to an average woman in a population during her reproductive life
life expectancy
worldwide has risen from 40 to 65.5 in past century
opposing factorsL pronatalist pressures
increase desire for children: support, pleasure, pride, comfort, income, social status
birth reduction pressures
women have more opportunities (higher education, more personal freedom)
demographic transition
eventually, birth rates begin to fall – populations grow rapidly between death rates and birth rates falling
in developed countries, transition is complete and both death and birth rates are low and population is in equilibrium
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