CHAPTER 5
episodic memory
remembering what you did for your last birthday or what you had last night for dinner
semantic memory
knowing who the first president of the US is
procedural memory
remembering how to drive a standard
working memory
keeping a phone number in your head
social and behaviorial issues
self- concept, social cognition, behavioral reaction to frustration, anxiety
organizational difficulties
everyday school activities (locker, supplies), school- related activities at home (study area, desk), personal- level activities (personal effects)
Intervention of learning disabilities
provide effective instruction, explicit instruction, teach strategic behaviors, develop pragmatic lang, be sensitive
issues with LD
lifelong concerns, postsecondary consideration, adulthood concerns, juvenile delinquences, students who are gifted
Case study- emmanuel
needed improvement. needed help with phoenetics.
specific learning disability-
disorder in one of more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language
Causes of LD
differences in brain function or structure: genetic factors, causes occuring before birth or during the birth process, and medical and environmental causes occuring after birth
identification, assessment, and eligibility
multidisciplinary team, observation, and written report
Profile of a student with LD
could have very high in oral or math but very low in reading
developmental model
provision of enriched environment. child is provided many experiences for learning. development stimulated through creative activities
cognitive model
piaget- stimulating child cognitive abilities is primary focus.
Figure 5.9- teaching interaction
nonverbal behavior (face student, eye contact)
paraverbal behavior (neutral voice tone)
verbal teaching behavior (compliment student)
promoting inclusive practices for students with learning disabilities
children should be made aware that all ppl are different.
sense of inclusion through: making positive classroom and help students get to know one another
classroom modifications
in the gen ed. classroom, can address academic, social-emotional, and cognitive, metacognition, and attn. diff of students with LD
How is LD misunderstood?
for purposely uncooperative behavior
definition of LD
a severe discrepancy between ability and achievement that cannot be explained by another disabling condition
IDEA 2004 allows states to implement…
responsive to intervention program that provides struggling students with more intense evidence- based research
Who determines if the cause of students disability is cultural diversity, lack of educational opportunity, vision, hearing, mental retardation, etc?
School personnel
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