is energy stored in an object’s height.The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational
energy is stored.
is created from the motion of electrons.
Electrical energy is transferred by tiny charged particles
The first law of thermodynamics
states that energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
The second law of thermodynamics
energy naturally flows from states of high energy to low energy; some energy is lost at each transformation
to states of low energy (high entropy).
the process in which coal can be converted into synthetic gas (syngas)
one in which there is no oxygen.
black coal, called bituminous coal, is valuable as a fuel source for generating electricity and to manufacture coke for use in the steel industry
is a glossy, almost metallic-looking substance; densest and highest energy coal
Synthetic fuels, or Synfuels
are liquefied fuels obtained from nonpetroleum sources such as coal, natural gas or
biomass feedstocks through chemical conversion.
By far the largest reserves of natural fuels are the various types of coal. The known reserves of coal are estimated to last about 200 years at the current rate of consumption. The largest reserves of coal are in Australia, China, Russia, and the United States.
Of the three fossil fuels, the known reserves of crude oil are estimated to last about 45 years at current consumption and will dramatically decrease if consumption increases. The largest reserves are in the Middle East, which increases the potential for disruption in the world oil supply due to unstable govern- ments, friction between the countries in the Middle East, and the recent wars in Iraq.
At current consumption rates, the known reserves of natural gas are estimated to last 60 years. Europe has approximately 42 percent of the known reserves, while the Middle East has about 34 percent and the United States has about 3 percent.
Generation I reactors
were designed and built during the 1950s and 1960s. Very few of these early designs are still running; expected to last about 40 years.
Generation II reactors
are in use today and are known as Pressurized Water Reactors, Boiling Water Reactors, and Heavy Water Reactors.
Pressurized water reactors
the most common type of reactors in use today; use ordinary water as both a coolant and a moderator. They have a primary and secondary circuit.
Boiling water reactors
use ordinary water as both a coolant and a moderator. Using a single circuit, water is supplied under low pressure to cool the reactor.
Heavy water reactors
use uranium (U-235) as fuel and requires a more efficient moderator, heavy water; made up of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen that contains an extra neutron, making it heavier than water.
Generation III reactors
incorporate the most current technologies but very few have gone online. These reactors are similar to generation II reactor designs but incorporate improved fuel technology, thermal efficiency, passive supply systems, and a standardized design.
Generation IV reactors
are mostly theoretical in nature at this time and are not expected to be feasible
before the year 2030. Among the many types of experimental nuclear reactors are fast-breeder reactors.
Energy Conservation #1
Add insulation to help hold in warm air in the winter and cool air in the summer, while blocking the unwanted heating and cooling effects of outside air.
Energy Conservation #2
Add weather stripping to reduce drafts around door frames.
Energy Conservation #3
Lower the thermostat in the winter and raise it in the summer to use less energy. Instead, compensate by
wearing warmer clothing in the winter and cooler clothing in the summer. Also, install thermostats on each floor to more efficiently regulate temperature.
Energy Conservation #4
Replace single-pane windows with double- or triple-pane windows filled with noble gases, which cut down
heat exchange through windows.
Energy Conservation #5
Replace older equipment with more energy-efficient appliances. This may include water heaters, washers and dryers, dishwashers, heaters, air conditioners, stoves, and refrigerators.
Energy Conservation #6
Cut down on energy loss through items that are plugged in but not turned on. Unplug electrical equipment
when not in use.
Energy Conservation #7
Add ceiling fans. A reversible ceiling fan can change the direction of the circulating air, and any ceiling fan
can redistribute the hot air during the winter or the cool air during the summer.
Energy Conservation #8
Use electronic switches to turn on and off the heater and air conditioner.
Energy Conservation #9
Buy a more fuel-efficient vehicle.
Energy Conservation #10
Maintain vehicles with proper tire inflation and tune-ups.
pollution sources move from one location to another as the vehicle drives.
pollution emitted by a single location; electric power plant where the car’s electricity originates, which may burn coal, natural gas, or petroleum
Passive solar energy systems
require no moving parts and, thus, no input of electrical activity. These include both gravity-fed heating systems and photovoltaic cells, which capture the sun’s energy to generate electricity.
Active solar energy systems
use pumps and fans to move water heated by the sun throughout buildings, requiring some input of electrical energy. This hot water can be used to heat the house and can be used as hot water for cleaning and bathing.