chapter 5 survey
when does mechanical weathering occur?
when physical forces break rock into smaller pieces without changing the rocks mineral composition
name the three physical processes that cause mechanical weathering
frost wedging— unloading— and biological activity
describe frost weathering
temperature and moisture
slabs of outer rock separate like the layers of an onion and break loose in a process called
exfoliation
what is meant by biological activity?
the activities of organisms, including plants, burrowing animals, and humans can also cause mechanical weathering
explain chemical weathering
is the transfromation of rock into one or more new compounds
_______ is the most important agent of chemical weathering
water
can chemical weathering change the physical shape of rock
yes
what two factors affect the rate of weathering?
rock characteristics—climate
give an example of a rock characteristic
physical characteristics of rock
what is regolith?
the layer of rock and mineral fragements that nearly everywhere covers earths surface
name the four major components of soil
air–water–organic matter–mineral matter
what are the most important factors in soil formation?
parent material, time, climate, organisms, and slope
soil varies in composition,_______,________, and _______ at different depths
composition, texture, structure, and color at different depths
what are the three common types of soil?
pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite
how do human activities affect rates of erosion?
human activities that remove natural vegetation, such as farming, logging, and construction, have greatly accelerated erosion
what is mass movement?
the transfer of rock and soil downslope due to gravity
what triggers mass movements?
saturation of surface materials with water, oversteepening of slopes, removal of vegetation, and earthquakes
how do geologists classify mass movements?
based on the kind of material that moves, how it moves, and the speed of movement
when does rockfall occur?
when rocks or rock fragments fall freely through the air
how do mudflows differ from earthflows?
mudflows move quickly and earthflows move relatively slowly
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