Chapter 5 vocabulary
Mechanical Weathering
when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rock’s mineral composition
Frost Wedging
when water freezes in a rock and expands the rock, creating cracks
Talus
sections of rock that are wedged loose may tumble into large piles called talus
Unloading
When the pressure exerted on the igneous rock is reduced because of large masses of igneous rock being exposed through uplift and erosion of overlying rocks
Exfoliation
Slabs of outer rock separate like the layers of an onion and break loose in a process called exfoliation
Chemical weathering
the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Soil
the part of the regolith that supports the growth of plants
Regolith
layer of rock and mineral fragments
Humus
organic material
Soil Horizon
variations that divide the soil into zones
Soil Profile
A vertical section through all of the soil horizons is called a soil profile
Pedalfer
form in temperate areas that receive more than 63 cm of rain each year.
found in the drier western United States in areas that have grasses and brush vegetation
Pedocal
are found in the drier western United States in areas that have grasses and brush vegetation
Laterite
form in hot, wet tropical areas
Mass movements
the transfer of rock and soil downslope due to gravity is called mass movement
Rockfall
when rocks or rock fragments fall freeely through the air
Slump
the downward movement of a block of material along a curved surface
Mudflow
flows that move quickly
Earthflow
Flows that move relatively slowly
Creep
The slowest type of mass movement, usually travels only a few millimeters or centimeters per year
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