Those parts essential to the making of a real story (i.e., characters, setting, problem, and solution).
A method for determining a student’s instructional reading level; requires the student to fill in a series of blanks that have been systematically deleted from a passage; often used to determine the suitability of a particular text.
Tests in the teacher’s manual or student workbooks of many basal reading systems; may contain useful information regarding student accomplishments on small segments of material.
frustration reading level
The level at which a student’s reading deteriorates to the point whereby continuation is impossible because the material is too difficult even with the guidance of an instructor.
independent reading level
The level at which a learner can read and comprehend comfortably without teacher assistance.
informal reading inventory (IRI)
A nonstandard, direct measure, consisting of a series of graded passages that students read and answer questions about to help the teacher (a) observe students’ reading tactics, (b) choose appropriate reading material, (c) identify students’ three levels of reading, and (d) learn more about students’ strengths and needs.
instructional reading level
The level of reading that is challenging, but not frustrating, for students to successfully read during normal classroom instruction.
The action by which a teacher attempts to determine situations under which students will have the most successful reading experiences.
Conscious observation of students by teachers; includes use of field notes.
Also known as listening comprehension level; the highest level at which a student can understand 75% of the material read aloud; sometimes used as an indication of a reader’s ability to understand oral language or as an estimate of reading expectancy.
A variation of the cloze procedure that offers several possible selections in place of the missing word; a multiple-choice item.
Any deviation by a reader from what is written in print.
An examination of deviations from print made by a reader; gives the teacher insight into whether a reader is reading for meaning, as well as into the reader’s use of graphophonic, semantic, and syntactic cues.
The state of questions that can be answered either literally or inferred by reading a particular passage.
In the administration of IRIs, the list of main points expected for free recall, and questions based on the passages that are typed in advance on separate sheets of paper and duplicated to serve as the record sheet; any record sheet for assessment data.
In IRIs, the analysis of the kinds of miscues made by a reader to determine a pattern and to discover whether the miscues affect the meaning of the text.
Determination of the number of errors a reader makes without regard to kind or effect on meaning.
A measure of comprehension providing insight into the reader’s ability to interact with, interpret, and draw conclusions from text; the process of describing what was just read.
A way of coding passages for miscue analysis using a combination of proofreading symbols and check marks without need for a preprinted copy of the material being read by the student.
A set of evaluation criteria used for rating a student’s performance on a specific task.
Tests that measure the content, skills, and subskills learned by a reader from recently completed text material.