Behaviorism can’t easily explain why people often try to organize and make sense of new information and sometimes even alter its form.
What does learning involve?
Learning involves the formation of mental representations or associations that aren’t necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes: learning involves an internal, mental change rather than the external behavior change that many behaviorists call for.
What role do learners have in the learning process?
Individual learners themselves determine how they mentally process their experiences, and these cognitive processes in turn determine what is learned.
How is knowledge organized?
An individual’s knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and emotions aren’t isolated from one another, but are all either directly or indirectly interconnected.
What is effective learning?
Effective learning occurs when people relate new info and experiences to things they already know.
When does learning occur, according to a behaviorist?
the study of learning must be an objective endeavor that bases its theories on the results of empirical research. Learning has taken place when behaviorists sees a change in people’s behavior.
When does learning occur, according to a cognitivist?
Cognitivists observe people’s responses to various stimulus conditions, they believe they can draw reasonable inferences about the internal mental processes that underlie those responses.
How do people construct general ideas?
people construct general ideas from the many tidbits of info they receive – they don’t just learn the new info verbatim – and they organize similar ideas together in their memories.
What do cognitive theories focus on?
Cognitive theories focus on how people think about the information they receive from the environment.
Information Processing Theory
how people perceive the stimuli around them, how they “put” what they’ve perceived into their memories, and how they “find” what they’ve learned when they need to use it.
What are the limitations to the information processing theory?
• Information processing researchers say a great deal about HOW people learn, but less on WHAT people acquire as they learn. • It has yet to combine various cognitive processes into an integrated whole that explains, overall, how human beings think and behave.
Cognitive theorists now portray learning more as constructing knowledge rather than directly acquiring from the outside world.
When is construction involved?
Construction is involved when learners perceive separate objects as being a unit and when they fill in missing pieces in what they’re looking at.
What does Edward Tolman’s cognitive concept map state?
That learners combine various spatial relationships they’ve learned into a general mental representation of how their environment is laid out.
Construction occurring separately within each learner
encompasses theories that focus on how people work together to create new knowledge.
What are the drawbacks of the constructivist theory?
Constructivist perspectives have directed attention to what is learned and directing learning squarely in the hands of the learner. • Constructivism offers only vague explanations of the cognitive processes that underlie learning and some take the idea of learner control too far.
Contextual theories suggests that learners often think and perform more intelligently and effectively when they can draw on a variety of environmental support systems that enable them to make sense of new situations and help them tackle challenging tasks and problems
What are the benefits of the contextual theories?
The benefit of contextual theories lies largely in how they bring our attention back to the importance of the immediate context.
What did B.F. Skinner argue about the learning process?
B.F. Skinner argued that if students are to learn anything, they must make active responses in the classroom.