Chapter 8
Advance Organizer

Definition: Introduction that lays out the organizational framework for the upcoming material.

 

Example: A concept map

Expository Instruction

Definition: Information is presented in same form students are expected to learn it.

 

Example: Terms are used in a sentence in a short story. After reading the story, students are asked to write a sentences that use the terms.

Low-Level Questioning

Definition: Questions lower on Bloom’s Taxonomy that require simple regurgitation of information. These questions are typically fact-based, closed, direct, recall-related and questions that measure knowledge. 

 

Example: Who is the President of the United States of America?

High-Level Questioning

Definition: Questions which demand that the student manipulate bits of info previously learned to create and support an answer with logically reasoned evidence. This sort of question is usually open-ended, interpretive, evaluative, inquiry-based, inferential and synthesis-based.

 

Example: Is Democracy the best form of Government?

Peer Tutoring

Definition: Students teaching students.

 

Example: Have a student explain to their classmate how they solved a homework problem that the classmate did not understand.

Teach-Directed Instruction
Definition: Approach to instruction in which the teacher is largely in control of the content and course of the lesson.
Example: Ask a lot of questions.
Learner-Directed Instruction
Definition: Approach to instruction in which students have considerable say in the issues they address and how to address them.
Example: Have students discuss issues that lend themselves to multiple perspectives, explanations, or approaches.
Backward Design
Definition: Teacher first determines the desired end result and then identifies appropriate assessments and instructional strategies.
Examples: If the objective for the unit is addition and knowledge of number facts the teacher will use drill and practice and then used a timed assessment.
Task Analysis
Definition: Process of identifying the specific knowledge, behaviors, or cognitive processes necessary to master a particular subject area or skill.
Example: Behavioral analysis, subject matter analysis or information processing analysis.
Computer-Based Instruction
Definition: Instruction provided via computer technology.
Example: Kahn Academy videos
Mastery Learning
Definition: Appraoch to instruction in which students learn one topic thoroughly before moving to a subsequent one.
Example: Students learn to read and write the alphabet before reading a book.
Cooperative Learning
Definition: Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn.
Example: Peer Tutoring
Information Literacy
Definition: Knowledge and skills that help a learner find, use, evaluate, organize, and present information about a particular topic.
Example: Teach students to brainstorm all possible sources and evaluate those sources to choose the best option.
Hypermedia
Definition: Collection of multimedia, computer-based instructional materials that students can examine in a sequence of their own choosing.
Example: Wikipedia
Peer Tutoring
Definition: Approach to instruction in which one student provides instruction to help another student master a classroom topic.
Example: Have one student who understood the homework explain how to solve a difficult problem to their classmate.
Service Learning
Definition: Activity that promotes learning and development through participation in a meaningful community service project.
Example: Have students measure the level of toxicity in a nearby lake.
Differentiated Instruction
Definition: Practice of individualizing instructional methods, content and goals to align with each student’s existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
Example: Combine several instructional approaches into a single lesson like peer tutoring, class discussion, teacher questions and computer-based instruction.
Instructional Goal
Definition: Desired long-term outcome of instruction.
Example: Have students pass the state standardized test.
Instructional Objective
Definition: Desired outcome of a lesson or unit.
Example: Add and subtract fractions with common denominators.
Standards
Definition: General statements regarding the knowledge and skills that students should gain and the characteristics that their accomplishments should reflect.
Example: Respond to who, what, when, where, why, and how questions and discuss the main idea of what is read.
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Definition: Taxonomy of six cognitive processes, varying in complexity, that lessons might be designed to foster.
Example: Remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create.
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