chapter 8 and 9
what causes an earthquake?
earthquakes are caused by vibrations of earths produced by the sudden release of energy
describe the location of an epicenter and focus.
epicenter is the location on the surface of earth directly above the focus.focus the the point within the earth where the earthquake starts.
what is the elastic rebound hypothesis? how does it relate to earthquakes?
elastic rebound hypothesis is the release of built-up energy. most earthquakes are porduced by the release of elastic energy stored in rocks that has been subjected to great forves.
describe aftershock and foreshock.
aftershock are small quakes that come after a major earthquake. foreshock are small quakes that come before a major earthquake.
how are earthquakes measured?
historically, scientist have used two different type of measurement to describe the size of an earthquake-intensity and imgnitude
describe the location of an epicenter and focus.
epicent is the location on the surface of earth directly above the focus. focus is the point within the earth where the earthquake starts
what is the elastic rebound hypothesis?how does it relate to earthquakes?
elastic rebound hypothesis is the release of built-up energy. most earthquakes are produced by release of elastic energy stored in rocks that has been subjected to great forces.
describe aftershocks and foreshocks.
aftershock are small quake that come after a major earthquake. foreshocks are small quakes that come before a major earthquake
how are earthquakes measured?
historically, scientist have used two different types of measurements to describe the size of an earthquake-intensity and magnitude
describe the following earth waves: surface, S waves, and P waves
surface waves=seismic waves that travel along earth’s outer layers. they move up, down and side to side.
how do scientist locate earthquakes? (distance direction)
the difference in velocities oh P waves provides a way to locate the epicenter. scientist use a travel-time graph, in which one needs at lease 3 seismograph station data
where do most earthquakes occur?
most of these earthquakes occur around the outer edge of the pacific ocean. this zone is known as the circum-pacific belt. active earthquake area in this zoned include japan, the phillipines, chile, and alaska’s aelutian island
describe each of the different scales used to measure earthquaje. which one measures intensity and which one measures magnitude?what is the difference between magnitude and intensity?
richter scale=measure the magnitude of an earthquake. based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave. a ten fold system. news reporter use this scale, but scientist no longer use this scale
what is liquefaction?
stable soil turns into a liquid that is not able to support building or other structure.
what causes tsunami? what warning system is used?
a tsunami is called a seismic sea weave. a tsunami is triggered by an earthquake. it occur where a slab of ocean is displaced vertically along a fault. a tsunami also can occur when the vibration of a quake sets an underwater landslide into motion.
what are some other dangers that occurs due to earthquakes.
landslide and ground subsidence or the sinking of the ground triggered by the vibration occurs.
describe the layers of earth:
crust
Mantle
outer core
inner core
describe continental drift.
the contionental drift hypothesis stated that the continents had once been joined to form a single super continent
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