Chapter 9
Classroom Management
Establishment and maintenance of a classroom environment conducive to learning and achievement.
Classroom Climate (Psychological Environment)
Overall psychological atmosphere of the classroom.
Authoritative Parents

  • Provide a loving & supportive environment
  • Hold high expectations and standards for children’s behavior
  • Explain why some behaviors are acceptable and others are not
  • Consistently enforce rules for behavior
  • Include children in decision making
  • Provide age-appropriate opportunities for independence

Preventive Strategies
Those designed to establish a productive learning environment right from the start
Actual Physical Setup of the Classroom
The arrangement of tables and chairs, the availability of tools and resources (painting supplies, computers, etc.), the use of bulletin boards to present information and engage students’ interest, and so on.
Need for Relatedness
Human beings fundamental need to feel socially connected with others.
Community of Learners
A classroom in which teacher and students consistently work together to help one another learn.
Sense of Community
Shared belief that teacher and students have common goals, are mutually respectful and supportive, and all make important contributions to classroom learning.
Belongingness
General sense that one is an important and valued member of the classroom.
Strategies for keeping Students Productively Engaged

  • Have something specific for students to do each day, even on the first day of class.
  • Have materials organized and equipment set up before class.
  • Conduct activities that ensure¬†all students’ involvement ; participation.
  • Maintain a brisk pace throughout each lesson.
  • Ensure that students’ comments are relevant & helpful but not excessively long-winded.
  • Spend only short periods of class time assisting individual students unless other students are able to work independently & productively in the meantime.
  • Ensure that students who finish an assigned task quickly have something else to do.

Temperment
The extent to which a student is naturally inclined to be energetic, irritable, impulsive, and so on.
Withitness
Classroom management strategy in which a teacher gives the impression of knowing what all students are doing at all times.
Important Components of Coordination Among Faculty Members

  • Communicate & collaborate regularly with other classroom teachers and with specialists.
  • Form common goals regarding what students should learn and achieve.
  • Work together to identify and overcome obstacles to students’ academic achievement.
  • Establish a shared set of strategies for encouraging productive student behaviors.
  • Make a group commitment to promote equality and multicultural sensitivity throughout the school community.

Sense of School Community
Shared belief that all faculty and students within a school are working together to help everyone learn and succeed.
Common Mechanisms for Enhancing School-Family Communication

  • Parent-teacher conferences
  • Written Communication
  • Telephone Conversations
  • E-mail Messages
  • Class Websites

Misbehavior
Action that disrupts learning and planned classroom activities, puts students’ physical safety or psychological well-being in jeopardy, or violates basic moral standards.
When is Ignoring Misbehavior Often Reasonable?

  • When the behavior is a rare occurrence & probably won’t be repeated.
  • When the behavior is unlikely to spread to other students.
  • When the behavior is the result of unusual ; temporary conditions.
  • When the behavior is typical for a particular age-group.
  • When the bahavior’s natural consequence is unpleasant enough to deter a student from repeating it.
  • When the behavior isn’t seriously affecting classroom learning.

Cueing
Strategy of teachers letting students know, through a signal of one kind or another, that they’re aware of the misbehavior and want it to cease. (Verbal & Non-Verbal)
Strategies that Help Minimize the Likelihood of a Power Struggle

  • Speak in a calm, matter-of-fact manner, describing the problem as you see it.
  • Listen empathetically to what the student has to say, being openly accepting of the student’s feelings and opinions.
  • Summarize what you think the student has told you, and seek clarification if necessary.
  • Describe the effects of the problem behavior, including your personal reactions to it.
  • Give the student a choice from among two or more acceptable options.
  • Try to identify a solution that enables the student to maintain credibility in the eyes of peers.

Forms of Mild Punishment that are Often Effective in Reducing Undesirable Classroom Behaviors

  • Verbal Reprimands (Scolding)
  • Response Cost
  • Loigical Consequences
  • Time-Out
  • In-School Suspension

Response Cost
Loss either of a previously earned reinforcer or of an opportunity to obtain reinforcement.
Logical Consequence
Unpleasant consequence that follows naturally or logically from a student’s misbehavior.
Time-Out
Consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a dull, boring situation with no opportunity for reinforcement or social interaction.
In-School Suspension
Consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a quiet, boring room within the school building, typically to do schoolwork under close adult supervision.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

(aka. behavior therapy or contingency management)

Systematic application of stimulus-response principles to address a chronic behavior problem.
Principles ABA Approaches are Based on

  • Some stimuli tend to elicit certain kinds of behaviors.
  • Learners are more likely to acquire behaviors that lead to desired consequences.
  • Learners tend to steer clear of behaviors that lead to unpleasant consequences.

 

ABA Approaches

  • Indentify problem behaviors and desired behaviors in explicit terms.
  • Identify reinforcers, punishments, or both that are truly effective for the student.
  • Develop a specific intervention plan.
  • Modify the classroom environment to minimize conditions that might trigger inappropriate behaviors.
  • Collect data on the frequency of problem behaviors and desired behaviors both before and during the intervention.
  • Monitor the program’s effectiveness by observing how various behaviors change over time, and modify the program if necessary.
  • Take steps to promote transfer of newly acquired behaviors.
  • Gradually phase out the intervention after the desired behaviors are acquired.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
When cognitive and motivational factors affecting students’ behavior are addressed.
Functional Analysis
Examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine one or more purposes (functions) that the behavior might serve for the learner.
Positive Behavioral Support (PBS)
Systematic intervention that addresses chronic misbehaviors (1) identifying the purposes those behaviors might serve for a student and (2) providing more appropriate ways for a student to achieve the same ends.
PBS Strategies

  • Teach behaviors that can serve the same purpose as inappropriate behaviors.
  • Modify the classroom environment to minimize conditions that might trigger inappropriate behaviors.
  • Establish a predictable daily routine as a way of minimizing anxiety and making the student feel more comfortable and secure.
  • Give the student opportunities to make choices.
  • Make changes in the curriculum, instruction, or both to maximize the likelihood of academic success.
  • Monitor the frequency of various behaviors to determine whether the intervention is working or, instead, requires modification.

Three Level Approach to Preventing Aggression and Violence in Schools

  1. Create a Schoolwide Environment that Minimizes the Potential for Aggression and Violence
  2. Intervene Early for Students at Risk
  3. Provide Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble

Strategies in Creating a Peaceful, Nonviolent School Environment

  • Make a schoolwide commitment to supporting¬†all students’ academic and social success.
  • Provide a challenging and engaging curriculum.
  • Form caring, trusting faculty-student relationships.
  • Insist on genuine and equal respect for people of diverse backgrounds, races, and ethnic groups.
  • Emphasize prosocial behaviors.
  • Establish schoolwide policies and practices that foster appropriate behavior.
  • Teach specific skills that students can use to intervene during bullying incidents.
  • Provide mechanisms through which students can communicate concerns about aggression and victimization openly and without fear of reprisal.
  • Involve students in school decision making.
  • Establish close working relationships with community agencies and families.
  • Openly discuss safety issues.

Strategies Towards Suppressing Violent Gang Activities

  • Develop, communicate, and enforce clear-cut policies regarding potential threats to other students’ safety.
  • Identify the specific nature and scope of gang activity in the student population.
  • Forbid clothing, jewelry, and behaviors that signify membership in a particular gang.
  • Actively mediate between-gang and within-gang disputes.

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