Chapter 9
climate
long-term weather patterns
aerosals
minute particles and liquid droplets
convection currents
redistribute heat and moisture
stratosphere
more dilute than troposphere, but contains almost no water and 1,000 times ozone (O3)
thermosphere
ionized gases and high temperatures (ionosphere…)
greenhouse effect
trapping of heat bu tje earth’s atmosphere, which is transparent to incoming visible light rays but absorbs outgoing longwave infrared radiation
latent heat
stored energy
why does it rain?
water condenses as air cools and air cools as it rises
coriolis effect
apparent curvature of the winds
coriolis effect
apparent curvature of the winds
jet streams
found at top of troposphere, hurricane force wind
monsoons
regular, seasonal wind and rain
Milankovitch cycles
explanation of climate shifts at different time scales: one explanation is periodic changes in sunlight intensity resulting from these cycles: 1) shape of earth’s orbit around the sun elongates and shortens in a 100,000 year cycle, 2) the axis of rotation changes it’s angle of tilt in a 40,000 year schedule, 3) over a 26,000 year time period, tje axis wobbles like an out-of balance spinning top
el nino
major ocean current/climate connection that effects weather throughout the pacific
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
inter-nation approach to asses current knowledge of the state of climate change
photochemical oxidants
compunds formed wiht solar energy
fugitive emmisions
do not go through smoke stack
converntional/criteria pollutants
sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates,volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, ozone, lead – most serious threat to humans
unconventional pollutants
less volume but especially hazardous/toxic to humans
sulfur dioxide
colorless, corrosive gas – major component of acid rain
nitrogen oxides
highly reactive gases – initial products oxidizes (can be many different ways)
carbon monoxide
less common than carbon dioxide but more dangerous – incomplete combustion of fuel
Clean Air Act
acid rain, urban smog, toxic air pollutants, ozone protection, marketing pollution rights, VOC’s, ambient ozone, soot, dust, NOx emissions
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