Chapter Eight
Health
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absesne of disease or infirmity. (176)
Disease
An abnormal change in the body’s conidition that impairs important physical or psychological functions. (176)
Morbidity
Illness (176)
Mortality
Death (176)
Mortality
Death (176)
Environmental Health
External factors that cause disease, including elements of hte natural, social, cultural, and technological worlds in which we live. (176)
Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)
A measure of the impact of disease burden, combining premature deaths and loss of a healty life resulting form illness or disability.
Pathogen
Disease-causing organism. (178)
Emergent Diseases
Diseases that are not previously known or that have been absent for at least 20 years. (178)
Toxin
Poison (182)
Allergens
Substances that activate the immune system. (183)
Antigens
Allergens that are recognized as foreign by white blood cells and stimuate the production of speific antibodies (proteins that recognize and bnd to foreign cells or chemicals). (183)
Neurotoxins
A speical class of metabolic poinsons that specifically attack nerve cells (neurons). (185)
Sick Building Syndrome
Headaches, allergies, and chronic fatigue caused by poorly vented indore air contaminated by molds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, and other toxic checmals released by carpets, insulation, plastics, builing materials, and other sources. (183)
Sick Building Syndrome
Headaches, allergies, and chronic fatigue caused by poorly vented indore air contaminated by molds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, and other toxic checmals released by carpets, insulation, plastics, builing materials, and other sources. (183)
Mutagens
Agents, such as chemicals and radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells. (185)
Teratogens
Chemicals or other factors that specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development. (185)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A teratogen, caused by drinking during pregnancy, that develope during the fetal stage and continue to effect the child’s entire life. (185)
Carcinogens
Substances that cause cancer. (185)
Endocrine Hormone Disrupters
Chemicals that disrupt normal endocrine hormone functions.
Bioaccumulation
The selective absorption and storage of ag reat variety of molecules by cells. (187)
Biomagnification
Occurs when the toxic burden of a large number of organisms at a lower trophic level is accumulated and concentrated by a predator in a higher trophic level. (187)
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
Chemical compounds that persist in the enviroment and retain biological activity for a long time. (187)
Synergism
An interaction which one substance exacerbates the effects of another. (189)
LD50
A chemical dose lethal to 50 percent of a test population. (191)
Acute effects
Effects caused by a single exposure to the toxin and result in an immediate health crisis. (191)
Chronic effects
Long-lasting, perhaps permanent effects from a toxin. (191)
Risk
The probability of harm times the probablility of exposure. (192)
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