Chapter One
Analytical Thinking
A way of systematic analysis that asks, “How can I break this problem down into its constituent parts?” (11)
Biocentric Preservation
A philosophey that emphasizes the fundamental right of living organisms to exist and to pursue their own ends. (15)
Blind Experiments
A design in which researchers don’t know which subjects were given experimental treatment until after the data has been gathered. (6)
Controlled Studies
Comparison made between two populations that are identical (as far as possible) in every factor expect the one being studied.(6)
Creative Thinking
Original, inependant thinking that asks, “How might I approach this problem in new and invtentive ways?”(11)
Critical Thinking
An abililty to evauatione information and opions in a systematic, purposeful, efficient manner. (11)
Deductive Reasoning
“Top down” reasoning in which we start with a general principle and derive a testable prediction about a specific case.(6)
Double-Blind Design
Neither the subject (participant) nor the experimenter knows which participants are recieving the experimental or the control treatments until after the data have been gathered and analyzed. (6)
Environment
The circumstances or conditions that surrond an organism or a group of organisms as well as the complex of social or cultural condiditons that affect an individual or a community.(4)
Environmental Science
The systematic, scientific study or our environment as wel as our role in it. (4)
Global Environmentalism
The extension of modern enviromental concerns to global issues. (16)
Hypothesis
A conditional explination that can be verified or falsified by observation or experimentation. (7)
Inductive Reasoning
“Bottom-up” reasoning in which we study specific expamples and try to disvoer patterns and derive general explanations from collected observations. (6)
Logical Thinking
A rational way of thought that asks, “How can orderly, deductive reasoning help me think clearly?” (11)
Mean
Average. (8)
Modern Environmentalism
A fusion of conservation of natural resources and preservation of nature with concerns about pollution, environmental health, and social justice.(15)
Paradigms
Overarching models of the world that shape our wourldviews and guide our interpretation of how things are. (9)
Parismony
A principle that says where two equallty plausibe explanations for a phenomenon are possible, we should choose the simpler one. (5)
Probability
The likelihood that a situation, a condition, or an event will occur. (8)
Reflective Thinking
A thoughtful, contemplative analysis that ask, “What does this all mean?” (11)
Reproducibility
Making an observation or obtaiing a particular resulft consistently.(6)
Sample
To analyze a small but representative portion of a population to exitmate the characteristics of the entire class. (8)
Scientific Theory
An explantation or idea accepted by a substantial number o scientists. (7)
Significant Numbers
Meaningful data that can be measured accurately and reproducibly. (6)
Statistics
Mathematical analysis of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data. (8)
Sustainability
Ecological, social, and economic systems that can last over the long term. (21)
Sustainable development
A real increase in well-being and stard of life tfor the average person that can be maintained over the long term without degrading the environment or compromising the aility of future generations to meet their own needs. (21)
Utilitarian Conservation
The polosophy that resouces should be used for the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time. (14)
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