Chapters 1 & 2
Population Growth
– increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state
-continues more rapidly than Earth can support
– appx. 211,000 people added to the population every day
Rule of 70
-70 divided by the growth rate
-gives you the doubling time of that population
-World’s current growth rate 1.167%
GDP
-Gross Domestic Product
-market value of goods and services produced by a country
-standard of living calculated by dividing the GDP by the population mid year
Perpetual Resources
Renewed continuously, examples are solar or wind energy
“Tragedy of the Commons”
Article by Garret Hardin which shows the damaging effects of misusing a common good. In his article it uses farmers sharing a “commons” for grazing cattle, and each farmer continues to put more cattle in the area because only they will reap their personal profits, but all will share in the consequences.
Early Human Impact
Hunter-gatherer lifestyle meant little ecological impact. However, once advanced they had a much greater impact because of the developement of civilizations and slash and burn farming methods.
Wood Use
Early humans burned dung for heat but that was extremely uneffective so they turned to wood for heat, food cooking, and metallurgy. However they soon had cut down all trees in the surrounding areas and had to find new fuel sources.
Henry David Thoreau
Author of Walden, a major literary work that focuses on the nessecities of life and the impact of over zealous human activity on nature.
Rachel Carson
Author of Silent Spring, a book which explores the effects of pesticides on other parts of the ecosystem. Extremely controversial at it’s publishing, she was considered by many men as a raving women who because she was a woman couldn’t understand the complicated science her work was based from.
Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
Presidents who thumbed their noses at environmental policies. All 3 wanted to remove resources from public lands to stimulate the economy. Hoover suggested selling them to private companies for economic development.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President during the great depressiong, stimulated the economy by putting people to work in convservation acts. established the CCC. (Civilian Conservation Corps)
John Muir
Founder of the Sierra Club, an important preservationist group. Helped save the Yosimite National Park.First national wildlife rescue at Pelican Island.
Alice Hamilton
Influential expert on industrial medicine, was an advocate for pollution prevention, and tried unsuccessfully to oppose the use of tetraethyl lead in gas.
Impact of Industrial Revolution
Shifted our energy sources from wodd which is highly renewable to fossil fuels, (coal, oil, the natural gas).
Wilderness Act of 1964
b/c of John Muir, gov’t must protect undeveloped lands as part of Nat’l Wilderness System only if congress doesn’t say it’s needed for the good of the country.
OPEC oil embargo
Banned shipments to the US because of their suppory for Isreal in the Yom Kippur War. Price for gas rose exponentially.
Earth Day
Established by Nixon, celebrated by the release of Theodor Geisel’s (Dr. Seuss’s) The Lorax, an environmental awareness movie based towards children.
Aldo Leopold
Took the stance that it is your own job to wisely use land and resources and preserve them. Was one of the founders of the environmental movement.
Wise Use Movement
Loggers, farmers, and other professions seeking out to weaken environmental laws. Basically said “Give us the land and we’ll use it responsibly. Just trust us.”
CFC’s
Chlorofluorocarbons. Theorized by Roland and Molina in 1974 to be the cause of the hole in the ozone layer.
Svante Arrhenius
Stated that burning fossil fuels would lead to global warming in 1908. Confirmed in 1950 that it was being caused by increased CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels.
Lead
Linked to poisoning in children in 1904. Is banned from gasoline in 1985. Poisoning can cause seizures, coma, or death.
Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
First major political figure to support conservation very openly to the general public. Established federal refuge on Pelican Island with John Muir. Created national park system.
Man and Nature
Published by George Perkins Marsh in 1864, a congressman from Vermont. Questioned the ideas of infinite resources, detailed that when other civilizations had fallen it was because of their misuse of resources. To this day many of his principles are still followed.
Killer Fog
Kills 4,700 in London from 1880 to 1952. Caused from so much pollution being trapped near the ground. Died of respiratory distress.
American Bison near extiction
Numbers were not depleted when only Indians were out wesr, but as we began settling we killed them in large numbers for their tongues and hides, leaving the carcasses to rot on the plains. Were given refuge in Yellowstone in 1893 when we dwindled their numbers to 85 total as compared to the original thirty to sixty million.
Point Source Pollution
Pollution from one identifiable source, such as a drain pipe running into a river or companies “saving money” by burying their waste, (like at Love Canal, New York).
Effects of Poverty
Resource degradation because they are worried more about getting food that day than how it was grown. Jobs people get are very low wage and almost always extremely dangerous.
Homestead Act of 1862
Each qualified settler in the west was given 165 acres free of charge. By 1900 more than half of the public land in the US had been sold or given away.
DDT
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Main pollutant researched in Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. Bioaccumalation nearly wiped out a species of pelican because DDT caused a weakening of the shells and they could not withstand the pressure of incubation.
Industrial Revolution
Human and animal labor becomes replaced by machinery appx. 275 years ago. Certain species of moth in london changes from white to brown to belnd in better with the layer of soot covering the trees.
Carboniferous Period
Time period when large deposits of biotic factors were built up. Millions of years and pound of pressure later, these deposits are what we know as fossil fuels. Creation of the steam engine spiked use in fossil fuels, (coal, oil).
Apollo Mission
Spike in environmentalism because for the first time we knew exactly what our “big blue marble” looked like from the outside, and seeing that made people want to protect it.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
States that the federal government is required to protect public land from exploitation for resources. Some argued that we should use the land and sell or grow crops on it to stimulate during rough periods, but these ideas only got laws slackened, not destroyed.
Sustainable Yield
Highest rate at which a resource can be used indefinitely and not have a reduction inavailable supply.
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority. Led efforts which built dams, (therefore creating a viable way to generate hydroelectric power), replanted large tracts of forest, and provided jobs in a struggling post-war economy.
The -ationists
Preservationists believe we should set aside land and leave it untouched by human activities. Conservationists believe we should keep it in good condition for future generations use. Restorationists work mainly with bringing affected areas back to their previous splendor.
Love Canal, NY
Hooker Chemical plant closes down and just buries their waste. A nice housing development is built over it, as well as a school. Led to public contreversy and a public health scandal because the county and school board built on it knowing that the chemicals were there.
Output Pollution Control
Seen as just a temporary bandaid because when you remove the waste from one area you move it to another. Also it is only effective if population consumer numbers do not increase. (Catalytic Converter situation.)
Native American Culture
Show a deep reverance for the earth and regard it not as a property but as a living breathing thing and even the trees and shrubs are their brothers and sisters. As a culture, they try to make as little impact on the earth as possible.
Pelican Island
1st National Wildlife refuge. Located in Sebastion, Florida. First time that land was ever set aside by the federal government for the protection of animals, (Brown Pelicans).
National Park Service Act of 1916
Declared that the parks were to be kept maintained for future generations usage and it also established the National Parks Service with Steven Mather as it’s first head.
Donora, PA
1948 smog disaster kills 20 from asphyxia and makes almost 700 ill. Resulted in the first effective Federal laws about air pollution control and marked the beginning of investigation of air pollution effects.
Cruzen, Molina, and; Rowland
Awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for their work on ozone depletions by CFC’s, (chlorofluorocarbons).
Clean Air Act
Defined the EPA’s (Environmental Protection Agency established by Nixon), resposibility to improve and protect national air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer.
Ronald Reagan
Self-declared “sagebrush rebel”, set out in his 8 years as president to put less federal control on the environment. Lowered gas mileage requirements and cut funding for energy conservation research.
Sagebrush Rebellion
Wanted fed’s to give more control of government controlled land to state and local government. Loggers, ranchers, and miners made up the majority of the group.
Bill Clinton
Protected more land that Tedd Roosevelt and Jimmy Carter combined. Vetoed most anti-environmental bills and other bills with anti-environmental riders. Declard SUV’s must have same to meet the same air pollution emmission standards.
Gifford Pinchot
First cheif of the United States Forest Service. Advocated planned use and renewal. Battled it out with John Muir.
Wilderness Act
Passed in 1964, was inspired by the vision of John Muir 80 years before. Required government to protect undeveloped plots of land as a part of the National Wilderness system.
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