Chapters 1-2
Natural Selection
The changes that an organism goes through to make it better suited to it’s environment. Ex. Girraffe with a long neck to reach plant life to eat high up in trees.
Adaptions

Changes in behavior or physical characteristics that allows the organsim to live in their environment.

EX. Hunting at night instead of the day when there is more competition for food.

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Competition
The struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources (food, water, shelter)
Predator
The organism that does the killing.
Prey
The organism that is killed.
Predation
When one organism kills another and eats it.
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two organisms where at least one benefits from the interaction.  There are 3 types (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)
Mutualism
Relationship where both species benefit from the interaction.
Commensalism
One species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor helped from the relationship.
Parasitism
One organism benefits from the relationship while the other organism is harmed.
Parasite
In parasitism it is the organsim that benefits from the relationship.
Host
In parasitism it is the organsim that the parasite lives on or in.  It causes the host harm.
Ecosystem
All the living and non-living things in an area create an ecosystem.  Can be as large as an ocean or as small as a drop of water.
Habitat
A place where an organism lives.  It provides the organism food, water, shelter, grow and reproduce.
Biotic Factors
The living parts of an ecosystem.
Abiotic Factors
The non-living parts of an ecosystem.  Including: water, sunlight, oxygen, temperature, and soil.
Photosynthesis
The way a plant produces glucose to use as food. Using sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. It takes place in the plants chloroplast.
Species
A group of organisms that are similar and can reproduce fertile offspring.
Populations

All the members of one species in a particular area.  (Only living things) 

Ex. All the dogs.

All the grey wolves.

Communities

All the different populations living in an area.

Ex. All the plants, mice, snakes, eagles.

Ecology
The study of how living interact with each other and their environment.
Producers
An organism that can make its own food.  They do this throught the process called photosynthesis.
Consumer
An organism that obtains energy by eating other organisms.
Herbivores
An organism that eats only plants for its energy.
Carnivores
An organsim that eats only meat for its energy.
Omnivore
An organism that eats both plants and animals to obtain its energy.
Scavenger
A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms.
Decomposers
Organisms that break down wastes and dead organsims and return the raw materials to the environment.
Food Chain
A series of events in which one organism eats another to obtain energy.
Food Web
Many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem.
Limiting Factors
An environmental factor that stops a population from increasing.  Some examples include lack of food, space, and weather.
Carrying Capacity
The largest population that an environment can support.
Niche
A role of the organism.  The job it does in an ecosystem.
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