CHDV 131 – Language Development – Set 2
Protoconversation
Interpreting children’s vocal or gestural contributions to “fill the gaps” and using various techniques to redirect children’s attention to the conversation.
Dependent Clause
Dependent clause: is a clause used in conjunction with the independent clause, augmenting or attributing it. It cannot stand alone so it contains a dependent clause (who hit me) with an independent clause (that boy is in time out) Ex: “That boy who hit me is in time out.”
Independent Clause
Is a clause that can stand by itself; also known as a simple sentence An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate; it makes sense by itself. Ex: “I’ll go and you stay” has two independent clauses.
Speech Act
An act that a speaker performs when making an utterance including making a general/propositional act or performance. (Such acts as promising, ordering, greeting, warning, inviting someone and congratulating.)
Register
Stylistics variation in language that are used in different situations. (Ex: how you vary your language, form, content, and use when making a request of your best friend versus when making a request of your professor. (pg.105)
Parietal Lobes
Their key functions include perceiving incoming sensory and perceptual information and integrating with an executive function of the frontal lobe, comprehending oral and writing language and calculating mathematics.
Meninges
One shield of the central nervous system comprising three layers that completely encase in CNS. Comprises the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater.
Myelinization
The growth of the myelin sheath, a slow process that is not complete until late childhood.
Cerebrum
Also known as cerebral cortex, the largest of the three major divisions of the brain. Plays roles in language, conceptual thinking, creativity, planning, and the form of substances of human thoughts.
Cerebellum
It’s primarily responsible for the regulating motor and muscular activity and has little to do with the rational part of the brain. It involves conscious planning responses. It coordinates muscle movements and muscle tone, monitors movement range, strength, and maintains posture and equilibrium.
Corpus Callosum
The band of fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. Serves as a conduit for communication between them.
Brainstem
One of the three divisions of the brain. Sits directly on top of the spinal cord and serves as a conduit between the rest of the brain and the spinal cord. Comprises the midbrain, the Pons, and the medulla oblongata. It has three primary roles: (a) a key transmitter of sensory information to the brain and of motor information away from the brain; (b) a major relay station for the cranial nerves supplying the head and face and for controlling the visual and auditory areas; and (c) a center for metabolic control and arousal.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
(CSF) Along with bone and the meninges, it shields the central nervous system by circulating between the two innermost layers of the meninges; the pia mater and arachnoid mater.
Central Nervous System
(CNS) The brain and the spinal cord. Contrast peripheral nervous system.
Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS) The cranial and spinal nerves, which carry information inward to and outward from the brain and spinal cord. Contrast central nervous system.
Efferent
Away from the brain, efferent pathways (descending pathways) carry motor impulses from the central nervous system to more distal structures of the body.
Afferent
Toward the brain, afferent pathways (ascending pathways) carry sensory information from the distal structures of the body to the brain.
Myelin
Neuron coating, rapid relay of nerve impulses, protects the neuron.
Neuron
One of billions of highly specialized cells that make up the human nervous system. They carry electrical-chemical nerve impulses.
Axon
Single nerve extension, carries impulses away from cell body.
Broca’s Area
An especially important region of the brain for spoken communication. (pg 124)
motor cortex of the left frontal lobe. Responsible for coordination of speech output.
Dendritic Sprouting
Dendritic sprouting: the generation of new neurons, and increase in synaptic strength.( pg 138).
Synaptic Pruning
At about the end of the first year, the infants brain contains about twice as many synaptic connections as an adult’s; from this time into adolescence, excess synapses are pruned (pg. 137). Pruning occurs into adolescence.
Synaptogenesis
(The formation of synaptic connections) is driven by sensory and motor experiences after birth, and occurs most rapidly in the first year of life (pg 137).
Sensitive Period
Is a timeframe of development during which a particular aspect of neuro-anatomy or neurophysiology that underlies a given sensory or motoric capacity undergoes growth or change.( pg 136)
A period of active/rapid anatomical and physiological change (“window of opportunity”).
Ex: visual or language development
Experience-Dependent Plasticity
Brain modification that results from highly specific types of experiences.
Experience-Expectant Plasticity
Changes in the brain structure that occur as a result of normal experiences.
Receptive Vocabulary
The volume of words that someone understands.
Expressive Vocabulary
The amount of words that an individual uses.
General Nominal
Refers to all the members of a category (e.g. Those, cats).
Specific Nominal
Refers to a specific object (e.g. Daddy, fluffy).
Linguistic Context
Contextual information that helps develop and refine internal representations of novel words. People draw of the grammar of the utterance containing a new word (e.g., “This is a vent” vs. “I dropped my ring into the vent.”
Extralinguistic Context
Nonverbal communication (Eye gaze, gestures, pointing).
Phonotactic Rules
Rules of a person’s native language that specify “legal” orders of sounds in syllables and words and the places where specific phonemes can and cannot occur.
Prosodic Cues
Word and syllable intonation and stress patterns in a language that allows infants to break into the speech stream.
Fragile State
Errors in understanding and use of the word are likely to occur.
Bound Morphemes
Must be attached to other morphemes.
Free Morphemes
Can stand alone; words with clear semantic referents or that serve grammatical purpose
Grammatical Morphemes
Refines but doesn’t change the word meaning. Ex: dress/dresses(plural); bigger/biggest (comparatives)
Inflectional Morpheme
Refines but doesn’t change the word meaning. Ex: dress/dresses(plural); bigger/biggest (comparatives)
Derivational Morphemes
Changes the syntactic class/meaning of words Ex: child/childish (suffixes); respect/disrespectful (prefixes)
Interrogative Sentences
2 major question types: (1) “wh” questions -who, what, were, when, why etc. (2) yes-no questions
Declarative Sentences
Makes a statement. Ex: I am working (subject + verb phrase), The teacher sent me home (subject + verb + direct object + indirect object).
Negative Sentences
Expresses negation and relies on such words as no, not, can’t, don’t, won’t. Ex: “Don’t eat that.” “You can’t do that”.
Noun Phrase
Can’t stand alone – cluster of words that expand upon a noun Ex: “tall boy”
Verb Phrase
Can’t stand alone, cluster of words that expand upon a verb Ex: “was saddened”
Joint Attention
Infants and caregivers focus attention on a mutual object. Provides early schematic representations of conversations.
Instrumental Function
Achieve action or objects Ex: “Give me that crayon.”
Regulatory Function
Control other people’s behaviors Ex: “Don’t move there, I want to win.”
Frontal Lobe
Functions: problem solving, planning, creating, reasoning, decision-making, social awareness. Responsible for coordination of speech output.
Temporal Lobes
Functions: auditory information, language comprehension, left temporal-processes speech (both process speech)
Occipital Lobe
(1 lobe) Functions: visual reception and processing.
Synapse
Site where two neurons meet: nerve impulses must cross the synapse.
Dendrites
Smaller group of extensions that bring nerve impulses into cell body from other neurons.
Cranial Nerve
Emerge from brain; 12 pairs
Spinal Nerves
Emerge from spinal cord; 31 pairs
Wernicke’s Area
(Receptive speech area) Critical area: language comprehension and production.
(2) major tasks children must accomplish as they acquire build their mental vocabulary
a. Acquire a mental lexicon (vocabulary) of roughly 60,000 words between infancy and adulthood
b. Acquire new words rapidly
c. Organize the mental lexicon in an efficient semantic network
List and give an example of (3) types of words in Nelson’s (1973) semantic taxonomy
a. Specific nominals – specific object (daddy, Fluffy)
b. General nominals – all members of a category (truck, cat)
c. Action words – specific actions (up), social-action games (peek-a-boo), action inhibitors (no)
d. Modifiers – Properties and qualities (big, mine)
e. Personal-social words – Affective states and relationships (yes, bye-bye)
List factors that influence how fast a person learns a new word
a. The concept or meaning represented by the word
b. The phonological form of the word
c. The context in which the word is encountered
List the three types of contextual information a child uses to develop an understanding of a new word

 a. Linguistic context:

b. Syntactic/grammar clues – “this is a ball” c. Semantic clues – “a vent blows air in the room”

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d. Extralinguistic context (Eye gaze, gestures, pointing)

List the factors that influence a child’s semantic development.
a. Gender
b. Language impairment
c. Language exposure

These factors influence:
1. Rate with which children build lexicon
2. Ease with which they learn new words
3. Efficiency in retrieving words from the lexicon

How does GENDER influence a child’s semantic development?
a. Early in language acquisition girls have larger vocabularies and learn words more easily
b. Early differences tend to disappear by six to seven years of age
c. Biological, psychological, and social variables influence these patterns
d. Parent-child play
e. Caregiver interaction in day care
How does LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT influence a child’s semantic development?
a. Significantly smaller vocabularies
b. Difficulties in learning new words
c. Poorly-organized semantic networks
d. Word-finding errors and slower retrieval of items from the semantic network
How does LANGUAGE EXPOSURE influence a child’s semantic development?
a. Significant relationship between the number and types of words children hear and the size of their vocabulary
b. Orphanages: depressed vocabularies
c. Low SES households
d. Parents’ emotional resources compromise the quality and frequency of conversation with children
e. Parents’ access to material resources – medical care, events, learning materials
Examples of Inflectional or grammatical morphemes
a. Refine meaning but don’t change syntactic class of word
b. Plural s or es – dress, dresses
c. Possessive ‘s or s’ – baby’s
d. Present or Past tense –s, ed – baked, drives
e. Present progressive –ing – talking
f. Comparatives – er, est – bigger, biggest
g. Also includes whole words like in, on, an, the
h. Forms of the “be” verb – is, was, were, am
Examples of Derivational Morphemes
a. Change syntactic class and semantic meaning of a word
b. Morphemes added to root words to create derived words
c. Prefixes – un, dis, re, anti, sub,
d. Unlikely, disrespect, repaint, antiaging, subpar
e. Suffixes – ly, like, tion, less, ness
f. Likely, childlike, adoption, careless, selfish, gentleness
List the ways in which living in poverty may affect a child’s language.

a. Know fewer words

b. Produce shorter utterances

c. Use a smaller variety of words

d. Have less developed phonological skills e. Poverty also affects cognition and learning, social-emotional functioning, and general health (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000) f. Effects related to parental social/emotional and other resources

List the three major tasks children must achieve in syntactic development.

a. Increase in utterance length

b. Increase in sentence variety

c. Development of a complex syntax

Give examples of DECLARATIVE sentences
1. Simple declaratives organizational schemes:
Subject + verb phrase – “I am working”
b.Subject + verb phrase + object – “She wants a bottle”
c. Subject + verb phrase + complement “I feel good.”
d. Subject + verb phrase + adverb phrase “I feel good today”
e. Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object “John gave Tommy the hammer.”
f. Subject + verb + direct object + indirect object “The teacher sent me home.”
Give examples of NEGATIVE sentences
i. Negation involves learning where to insert negatives into sentences
ii. Examples: “no eat that,” “you no do that”
Give examples of Interrogative sentences
ii. Syntactic rules for interrogatives: (1) Placing the wh word in the initial noun phrase slot. Ex: “Where are you going?”
(2) Yes-no interrogative: auxiliary verb “is” moves from following the subject to go before the subject. Ex: “Is it snowing?”
10. List the three major aspects of pragmatic development that emerge in childhood.
a. Using language for different functions or intentions
b. Developing conversational skills
c. Developing sensitivity to Extralinguistic cues
 List several basic communication functions young children acquire in early development.

a. Instrumental: achieve action or objects “Give me that crayon”

b. Regulatory: control other people’s behavior. “Don;t move there, I want to win.” c. Interactional: interact with others “Sit here, I;ll make room.”

d. Personal: express a personal state “My tummy hurts”

e. Heuristic: gather information “What;s that sign say?”

f. Imaginative: create and pretend “You be the mommy and I;ll be the daddy”

Human Nervous System
a. Complex structure that includes the brain, spinal cord, and sets of nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord.
b. Mediates nearly all aspects of human behavior
c. Human nervous system = CNS + PNS
Human Nervous System (2) Axis
1. Horizontal axis: anterior (frontal) pole of brain to the posterior (occipital) pole of the brain
2. Vertical axis: superior portion of the brain downward along the entire spinal cord
Major parts of the Human Nervous System

a. Neurons

b. Central nervous system (CNS)

c. Peripheral nervous system(PNS)

Parts of Neurons

a. Cell body

b. Axon

c. Dendrites

d. Synapse

 e. Neurotransmitters

f. Nervous tissue

g. Grey matter

h. White matter

i. Myelin

List three functions of the frontal lobe.
a. Largest lobe in cerebrum, behind the forehead
b. Handles executive functions like problem-solving, planning, creating, reasoning, decision-making, social awareness
c. Prefrontal cortex: most anterior portion of the frontal lobe / Affective sensations – gloom, elation, calmness
d. Primary motor cortex: controls skilled, voluntary movements, including movement in extremities and those used in speech
e. Premotor cortex: skilled motor functions, including musculature
(2) Areas of the brain that are specialized for language
a. Parietal Lobes
b. Temporal Lobes
Parietal Lobes (Language)
i. Perceive and integrate sensory and perceptual information
ii. Comprehend oral and written language and calculation for mathematics
iii. Lower part of the left parietal lobe tied to language ability, especially reading and naming abilities
iv. Important to working memory
v. Also essential for higher-order executive functions and acquiring and accessing one’s lexicon
Temporal Lobes (Language)
a. Heschl’s gyrus: small region of the left temporal lobe specialized for processing speech
b. Wernicke’s area (receptive speech area):
(1) Critical area for language comprehension and production
(2) Sits in upper part of left temporal lobe near the intersection of parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
(3) Point of convergence for receiving and integrating associations from throughout the brain
c. Wernicke’s aphasia:
(1) Significant challenges in processing and producing spoken and written language
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