Child Development Ch 1

Historical Views of Children and Childhood

Plato and Aristotle

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  • believed that schools & parents had the responsibility of teaching children self-control
  • both, perticularly Aristotle, believed too much discipline stifled a child’s initiative and individuality

 

  • Plato argued that children’s sensory experience simply trigger knowledge they’be had since birth
  • Aristotle denied the existence of innate knowledge.
  • He theiorized that knowledge is rooted in perceptual experience. Children acquire knowledge based on information provided by their sense.

John Locke (1632-1704)

  • Portrayed infants as tabula rasa or “blank slate”
  • claimed that experience molds the infant, child adolescent, adult into a unique individual.
  • believed parents should instruct, reward and discipline children, gradually relaxing contrul as they get older.

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

  • believed newborns have innate sense of justice and morality that unfolds natturally as children grow.
  • children move through stages – infancy, childhood, and adolescence.
  • instead of discipline, parents should be receptive ; responsive to children’s needs

2 events set the stage for the development of child development science.

  • The industrial revolution
  • Charles Darwin’s work on evolution.

Many scientists, including Darwin wrote what became known as Baby Biographies, detailed, systematic observations of individual children.

G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

  • generated theories of child development based on evolutionary theory.
  • Founded the first scientific journal in english
  • Founded a child-study institute at Clark University
  • First president of the American Psychological Association.

  • Albert Binet devised the first mental tests.
  • Sigmund Freud suggested that the experiences of early childhood seemed to account for patterns in adult behavior.
  • John B Watson, founder of behaviorism, began to write about the importance of reward ; punishment for child rearing.

In 1933 these scientific forces came together to form the Society fo Research in Early Child Development. SRCD

Applied Developmental Science

  • new branch of child development research
  • uses developmental research to promote healthy developmentm particularly for vulnerable children and families.

Researchers influence policy by providing needed knowledge, acting as advocates for children, by evaluating programs and by devising model programs

Theory

In child development, a theory is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain and make predications about development

The Biological Perspective

  • intellectual and personality development, as well as physical and motor development are rooted in biology
  • one of the 1st bilogical theories, Maturational Theory developed by Arnold Gesell.
  • Maturational Theory – child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan withing the body.

  • maturational theory discarded because it had little to say about the impack of a child’s environment
  • Ethological Theory – views development from an evolutionary perspective. many behaviors are adaptive, they have survival value.
  • ethological theorists assume that people inherit many of these adaptive behaviors.

 

  • A critical period – is the time in development when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult of even impossible.
  • Konrad Lorenze – theorized that chicks are biologically programmed to follow the first moving object that they see.
  • Ethologicala dn maturational theory both highlight the bioligical bases of child development

The Psychodynamic Perspective

  • oldest scientific perspective on child development
  • originating in the owrk of Sigmund Freud
  • Psychodynamic theory – development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages.

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