Child Development Test #1
• Physical development
includes the biological changes that occur in the body, including changes in size and strength, as well as the integration of sensory and motor activities. It involves the development of both fine motor skills and gross motor skills.
• Cognitive development
includes changes in the way we think, understand, and reason about the worlds. It includes the accumulation of knowledge as well as the way we use that information for problem solving and decision making.
• Social-emotional development
includes all the ways that we connect to other individuals, as well as the ways we understand our emotions and the emotions of others. It includes learning how to interact effectively with others and how to regulate our emotions.
• Qualitative change
changes in the overall nature of what you are examining
• Quantitative change:
changes in the amount of what you are measuring
-Children get taller, learn more words, acquire more factual knowledge
• Achievement and ability tests
measure intellectual ability and cognitive functioning. They allow the performance of an individual to be compared to the performance of similar individuals so that you can make a relative judgment on the individual’s performance.
• Personality tests
evaluate the thoughts, emotions, attitudes, and behavioral traits that comprise personality and can be used to identify strengths, weaknesses, and disorders.
– A particular type of personality assessment is a projective test in which people are given an ambiguous stimulus and asked to interpret what they see or what they think is going on. It is based on the idea that people will project aspects of their own personality onto external stimuli.
• Neuropsychological tests
used to assess neurological functioning to identify problems or disorders, such as developmental delays.
Psychoanalytic theory
Qualitative: Freud 5 stages
Erikson 8 stages
Biology drives development and is affected by environmental experience
Behaviorism
Quantitative
Environment
Piaget’s cognitive theory
Qualitative: Piaget 4 stages
Biology drives development, and environment shapes it
Vygotsky’s cognitive theory
Quantitative
Environment, in the form of culture and social influence, drives development
Information processing
Quantitative
Biology and environment interact
Evolutionary theories
Biology underlies adaptation to the environment
Ecological theory
Quantitative
A nesting of environmental influences are also affected by a child’s biology
Biological theories
Quantitative
Biology is the focus of these theories, but environment influences biological development
• Unconscious mind
: thoughts and feelings about which we are unaware of
• Free association
one thinks of anything that comes to mind in relation to a dream or another thought in order to discover the contents of the unconscious mind
• Id
basic drives like sex and hunger
-Pleasure principle: id seeks immediate gratification for all urges
• Ego
part of the personality that contends with the reality of the world and controls the basic drives
-Reality principle: ego has the ability to deal with the real world and not just drives and fantasy
• Superego
conscious or sense of right and wrong
• Oral Stage
Freud
0-2 years
-Focus of pleasure is on the mouth, taking in
• Anal Stage
Freud
2-3 years
-Focus of pleasure is on the anus, potty training
• Phallic Stage
Freud
3-6 years
-Focus of pleasure is on the penis for boys, clitoris for girls, Oedipus and Electra crisis
• Latency Stage
Freud
6-12 years
-Sexual drive goes underground and gives energy to learning to be an adult, schooling
• Genital Stage
Freud
12 years and older
-Adult sexuality
• Trust vs. mistrust
Erikson
development of trust in maternal care and in one’s own ability to cope vs. homelessness
• Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Erikson
independence and self-control vs. lack of confidence
• Initiative vs. guilt
Erikson
exuberant activity vs. overcontrol
• Industry vs. inferiority
Erikson
learning the tasks of one’s society vs. a sense of inadequacy
• Intimacy vs. isolation
Erikson
ability to form close relationship vs. fear of losing the self
• Generativity vs. stagnation
Erikson
guiding the next generation vs. preoccupation with one’s own needs
• Integrity vs. despair
Erikson
achievement of a sense of meaning in life vs. focus on fear of death
• Classical conditioning
Behaviorism

The process by which a stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) that naturally evokes a certain response (the unconditioned response) is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimulus. Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same response, now called the conditioned response
-Pavlov’s dog salvation experiment
-Works best when CS is presented just before the UCS
-Usually involves learning involuntary responses

• Operant conditioning
Behaviorism

The process that happens when the response that follows a behavior causes that behavior to happen more. A reinforcement or reward will increase the likelihood that the behavior will continue or happen again.
-The reinforcer must follow the response
-The reinforcer must follow immediately
-The reinforcer must be contingent on the response

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Positive reinforcement
Operant conditioning
increases the response with the presentation of a stimulus
Negative reinforcement
Operant conditioning
increases a response through the removal of a stimulus
Punishment
Operant conditioning
decreases the frequency of the response it follows
• Schemas
Cognitive Development
how we organize the world in our minds
• Assimilation
Cognitive Development
changing the world to fit what we already know
• Accommodation
Cognitive Development
changing our schemes to fit the world
Equilibration
Cognitive Development
attempt to resolve uncertainty
• Piaget’s 4 Stages: Sensorimotor
birth- 2 years
-Infants take in information through their senses and their action upon the world. Lack of object permanence
• Piaget’s 4 Stages: Preoperational
2-7 years
-Young children do not yet think logically, and their thinking is egocentric. Ability to use symbols and reference things not actually present
• Piaget’s 4 Stages: Concrete operations
7-12 years
-Children now think logically, but their thinking is concrete and not abstract. Understand conversation
• Piaget’s 4 Stages: Formal operations
12 years and older
-Adolescents can think both logically and abstractly
-Constructivism: humans actively construct their understanding of the world, rather than passively receiving knowledge.
• Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory
the distance between the child’s independent abilities and what the child can do with a little help from someone more skilled or knowledgeable.
• Scaffolding
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
adults help the “construction” of the child’s understanding by providing guidance and support at the zone of proximal development to move the child just beyond his current level of capability
Stores Model
The idea that information is processed through a series of mental locations
• Sensory Memory
the capacity for information that comes in through our senses to be retained for a very brief period of time in its raw form
• Short-term memory
memory capacity that is limited to only a brief time but that also allows the mind to process information in order to move it into long-term memory
• Long-term memory
the capacity for nearly permanent retention of memories
Connectionist/network Model
The process is envisioned as a neural network that consists of concept nodes that are interconnected by links
Evolutionary Theory
Darwin’s theory of evolution, Ethology, Sociobiology
• Darwin’s theory of evolution
adaptation to the environment in order to pass on genes
• Ethology
imprinting, bonding versus attachment
• Sociobiology
the role of genes in social behavior and culture
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Individuals grow and develop within a nested set of influences
Microsystem
the interaction of the person in her immediate settings, such as home, school, or friendship groups
Mesosystem
the interaction among the various settings in the microsystem, such as child’s school and home
Exosystem
settings that the child never enters, but that affect the child’s development nevertheless, such as the parents’ place of work
Macrosystem
cultural norms that guide the nature of the organizations and places that makes up one’s everyday life
Chronosystem
the dimension of time, including one’s age and the time in history in which one lives
Biological Theories
Maturational theory, Dynamic systems theory, Neuropsychology, Behavioral genomics
• Maturational theory
biological maturation with little emphasis on culture or individual differences
• Dynamic systems theory
biological maturation and environmental influences
• Neuropsychology
interaction of brain and behavior
• Behavioral genomics
interaction between genes and behavior
Basic research
Primary goal of adding to our body of knowledge rather than having immediate, direct application
Applied research
Primary goal of solving problems or improving the human condition
Scientific method
• Hypothesis: a prediction, often based upon theoretical ideas or observations
• Operationalization: defining a concept in a way that allows it to be measured
Reliability
The ability of measure to produce consistent results
Validity
The ability of a measure to accurately measure what it purports to
Populations
Everyone in the category we are interested in studying or learning more about, but usually we cannot study an entire population so we use a sample
Method: Observations
Advantages:Rich source of information
Can lead to a new hypotheses

Disadvantages:Can be confused with interpretation
Potential observer bias

Method: Surveys, questionnaires
Advantages: Gathers information quickly
Can be used to gather information on many different topics
Disadvantages: Questions must be precisely worded
Questions can be misleading or biased
Method: Interviews
Advantages: Can be a first-person or a third-person account

Disadvantages: No second observer to verify the information

Method: Standardized Tests
Advantages: Can asses many qualities or characteristics

Disadvantages: Norms need to be periodically updated
May be biased against certain groups

Method: Psychological measures
Advantages: Can gather data that don’t require language or an active response

Disadvantages:
Equipment is expensive and can be difficult to maintain

Method: Case Studies
Advantages: Source of rich information
Can utilize multiple methods
Disadvantages: Information may have limited generalizability
Method: Experiments
Advantages: Can determine the cause of behavior

Disadvantages: Must ensure groups tested are comparable

Correlation
• A measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
• There is not treatment assigned to different groups. The researcher examines whether variables that occur naturally are related to one another
• Causality cannot be inferred between variables
Positive correlation
increases in one variable are associated with increases in another variable -Negative correlation: increases
Negative correlation
increases in one variable are associated with decreases in another variable
Longitudinal design
• Research that follows one group of individuals over time and looks at the same or similar measures at each point of testing
Ex-6 year olds are tested again at age 8
Cross-sectional
Research that uses multiple groups of participants who represent the age span of interest to the researcher
Ex-6 year olds are tested again at age 8
Molecular genetics
• Identification of particular genes to discover how these gens work within the cell
Behavioral genetics
• Determining the degree of genetic basis for a behavior, a trait, or an ability through studies of twins and adopted children
Zygote
• The fertilized egg that begins to divide into the cells that will develop into the embryo
Chromosomes
• The strands of genes that constitute the human genetic endowment
DNA
• The order of the bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine) determines which proteins are produced which make the body develop and perform all its activities
Genotype
• All of a person’s genes, including those that are active and those that are silent
Phenotype
• The genetically based characteristics that are actually shown in one’s body
Sickle-cell anemia
• Common in African Americans, blood cells crescent shapes, very painful
Polygenic inheritance
• Many genes interact together to produce a paricular trait or behavior
Pleiotropic effects
• Any single gene can have many very different effects
Down Syndrome
One extra chromosome 21
Mental retardation, typical facial features, poor muscle tone
Physical, occupational, speech, and educational therapy
Klinefelter Syndrome
An extra X chromosome in men XXY in 23rd position
Infertility, small genitals, enlarged breasts, reduced facial, armpit, facial hair
Testosterone therapy, medical intervention as needed
Turner Syndrome
A missing X chromosome in women XO in the 23rd position
Short stature, webbing of the neck, lack of development of ovaries
Estrogen replacement therapy, growth hormone administration is possible
Fragile X Syndrome
One gene segment on the X chromosome CGG is repeated 200 times, rather than 5-40 times
Mental retardation and learning disabilities, distractibility and impulsivity
Early intervention, special education, treatment for ADHD
Epigenetics
• A system by which genes are activated or silenced in response to events or circumstances in the individual’s environment
Passive gene-environment interaction
• When a child’s family shares his own genetically determined abilities and interests
Active gene-environment interaction
• When one’s genetic endowment becomes a driving force for children to seek out experiences that fit their genetic endowments
Evocative gene-environment interaction
• When children’s genetic endowment causes them to act in a way that draws out or “evokes” certain responses from those around them
• Germinal Stage
0-2 weeks
-Fertilization, cell division, creation of the blastula, implantation in the uterine wall
-Blastocyst becomes embryo
-Trophoblast becomes placenta
• Embryonic Stage
2 weeks- 2 months
-Placenta develops to nourish the embryo
-3 layers:
Ectoderm (outside)- skin, nervous system
Mesoderm (middle)-muscle, blood, bones
Endoderm (inside)- internal organs
Heart begins to beat
-Miscarriage is common: 50-80% are due to chromosomal abnormalities
Cephalocaudal development
Part of the embryonic stage
development proceeds head to toe
Critical period
Part of the embryonic stage
development is occurring rapidly and the organism is especially sensitive to determine
Organogensis
Part of the embryonic stage
development of internal organs
• Fetal Stage
2 months- birth
-Sexual differentiation, prenatal “breathing”, development of the senses
-First 3 months: morning sickness due to hormonal changes, fatigue
-Second 3 months: woman feels the baby moving (“quickening”)
-Final 3 months: fatigue, discomfort, fetus drops into position for birth
Couvade
• A sympathetic pregnancy in which a man experiences a variety of symptoms associated with pregnancy or childbirth while his partner is pregnant.
-Up to 65% of men experience weight gain, nausea, indigestion, mood swings, etc.
Teratogens
• Agents that can disrupt prenatal development and cause malformations or termination of the pregnancy:
– FAS: A range of impairments in a child resulting form consumption of alcohol during a pregnancy
– SIDS: Tobacco disrupting the prenatal development that causes the sudden death of the infant before age 1.
– Prescription drugs, illegal drugs, maternal disease and stress
Stages of Labor: First stage
Early Labor: contractions are usually not painful; cervix begins to thin out and dilate
-Active Labor: contractions become longer, stronger, and more frequent; cervix has dilated to 4cms; lasts on average 3 to 8 hours
-Transition: contractions come in rapid succession and last up to 90 seconds each; lasts 15 minutes to 3 hours; ends when cervix has dilated 10 cms
Stages of Labor: Second Stage
Urge to push
-Delivery of the baby
Stages of Labor: Third Stage
Delivery of the placenta
-Shortest length of time
Apgar Scale
• An assessment of a newborn’s overall condition at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth that is based upon the newborn’s activity level, pulse, grimace, appearance, and respiration
Doula and Midwives
• A trained, knowledgeable companion who is present at a birth to support the woman through her labor and delivery
Postpartum depression
• A severe depression anytime in the first year after childbirth that lasts for more than 2 weeks, symptoms are severe enough that they interfere with the woman’s ability to function
Low birth weight
A full-term infant who weighs less than 5 pounds 4 ounces
Prematurity
A birth that occurs before a gestational age of 37 weeks
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