Child Development Test 2

Physical Development four main areas

Gross Motor

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Flexibility

Balance

Agility

Force

Physical Development

Fine motor

 

 

organization

detail in drawings

more refined legible handwriting

linked with cognitive growth

 

 

Rough and Tumble Play

 

 

 

Some parent control has hurt rough and tumble play

 

It is a physical and social thing for boys

 

Key Physical Developmental Aspect in Middle Childhood

 

 

Refinement

Why have obesity rates risen

lack of knowledge

tendency to buy high fat low cost foods

family stress (overeating)

impact of obesity on child’s health and overall development

;

  • physical attractiveness
  • socially isolated
  • high emotional social and school difficulties
  • more behavior problems
  • can lead to serious disorders (defiance aggression and depression)
  • girls-early puberty

;

Cognitive Development

Concrete Operational Stage

7-11 years old

More logical, flexible, and organized

Decentration

;

;

focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them rather than centering on just one

Reversability

;

;

capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction returning to the starting point

classification

the ability to focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories at one time (ie. three relations at once)

;

ex. categorized pictures in class

seriation;

ability to order items in a quantitative dimension such as length or weight.

;

ex. paper strips. short to long

seriation-

transitive inference

ability to order things mentally not just physically manipulating things
spatial reasoning
understanding directions and maps
Piaget says that culture impacts…

WHEN those tasks can be mastered.

;

more formal school=earlier mastery of tasks

information processing

;

(computer model)

we operate much like a computer processor
mental strategies

1. Sensory register (info enters through our senses)

2. short term/working memory (we manipulate info to help store it)

3. central executive (directs the flow of information/coordinates and assimilates new info

4. long-term memory (permanent knowledge)

attention

young children are not sure what is important and what is relevant

;

young elementary- not consistent and efficient

;

older elementary- more organized and able to rehearse and elaborate upon info.

Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence three parts

analytical 

creative

practical

 

analytical

apply strategies

acquire task relevant and metacognitive knowledge

engage in self-regulation

creative

solve novel problems

 

make processing skills automatic to free working memory for complex thinking

 

 

practical
adapt to, shape, and or select environments to meet both  personal goals and the demands of ones everyday world
Gardner’s multiple intelligences

1. Linguistic

2. Logial/mathematical

3. musical

4. spatial/visual

5. kinesthetic

6. naturalist

7.interpersonal

8.intrapersonal

nature vs. nurture;

impacts on intelligence

nature– 60% genetically determined

 

nurture– highly linked to child’s family SES

Test Bias
Test styles reflect patterns in middle and upper SES homes/schools
Intelligence tests

weschler

stanford-binet

two areas they test

1. verbal

2. performance

4 parenting styles

authoritarian  (high demand–low responsiveness)

 

authoritative (high demand– high responsiveness)

 

permissive (low demand– high responsiveness)

 

neglect (low/no demand– low/no responsiveness)

co-regulation
needed as children mature and get older
birth order

companionship and competition 

leadership and dependence

divorce and single parenting

stressors often=changes in parenting that are unhealthy (too permissive or strict)

 

loss of income= less academic achievement for the child

employment

response of schools can impact support for families

1. before and after school care

2. flexible assignments

self concept- 

major change between 8-11

 

emphasize general competencies

self esteem

adjusts to more realistic level

tied to specific abilites

attributions (mastery oriented, learned helplessness)

emotional self regualtion

children gain strategies for coping with strong emotions

1. problem solving

2. emotion focused

perspective talking

major advances occur

helps make improvements in social settings such as sports and in moral decision making

4 components of self esteem

academic 

social

physical/athletic

physical apperance

moral development

equity

merit

benevolence

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