CIH
Alice Hamilton
First female faculty meMber at Harvard
Dusts
Dry partcle aerosols produced by mechanical processes (1um to 1mm).
Ex. Fertilizers, dry packaging
Fumes
Very fine solid aerosol particles produced from vaporized solids (<0.1um)
Ex. Arc welding, metal fumes
Mists
spherical droplet aerosols produced by mechanical processes (few um to <100um)
Ex. spray painting
smokes
complex mixture of solids and liquid aerosol particles, gases and vapors resulting from incomplete combustion
Fibers
Elongated particles with an aspect ratio greater than 3:1
Tularemia
Disease associated as occupational hazard for meat packers.
Byssinosis
Occupational hazard for cotton workers
Ex. denim manufacturing plant
Dust categories
Inhalable (<100um)
Thoracic (<10um)
Respirable (<4um)
Autoclave
used to decontaminate biohazardous waste
anthrax
also called wool sorters disease – occupational risk for imported fur workers or people working with animal hides
leptosporosis
vector is cow
PVC filters (polyvinyl chloride)
used to sample for silica, dusts, zinc oxide
Autoclave
used to decontaminate biohazardous waste
Formaldehyde
Used to fully decontaminate a biohazard safety lab level 3
teflon filters
(polytetrafluoroethylne)
used to sample for anthrax and sars
cyclone
used for respiable dust air sampling
IOM
developed at institute of occupatonal medicine (IOM) in Scotland – 2 lpm inhalable particles inhaled by mouth and nose
photometers
real time measurements of particulate matter concentration. Light diffracted from particle.
Semi volatile sampling
semi-volatiles exist in vapor form and particulate form, move back and forth between the 2 states. Denuder or impinger or both in a series may be used to sample for semi-volatiles.
denuder
materials diffuse to walls or screen of denuder. vapors from particles/gas mixtures. walls are coated with materials to adsorb gases (NaCO2 adsorbs HCl, HNO2, SO2)
Elutriator
particles settle out in laminar flow.
Verticle: particles with terminal settling velocity greater than air velocity are trapped, used in textile mills for cotton sampling.
Horizontal: particles settle out as air passes between 2 plates.
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