city planning
urban renewal
is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of reconstruction. The process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, and has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world.
Great Society
was a set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Two main goals of this social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. this in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
New Federalism
is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states. The primary objective of this, unlike that of the eighteenth-century political philosophy of Federalism, is the restoration to the states of some of the autonomy and power which they lost to the federal government as a consequence of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal.
New Partnership
Designed by President Carter, sought to empower all levels of government and private organizations to provide community support. Late 1970’s
Third Way(characteristics, causes, decades)
President Clinton; a program that worked to balance economics and social programs to sustain integrity. 1990
Pruitt-Igoe (superblock) Housing
A large urban housing project in St. Louis Missouri which constructed 33 Buildings with 11 stories each. They failed miserably and were torn down fifteen years later because it was known for poverty, crime, and segregation, 50’s to early 70’s
advocacy planning
Founded by Paul Davidoff, a strategy in which communities must provide a ‘fair’ amount of low-income housing. Notable case: Mt. Laurel New Jersey
equity planning
– a strategy that provides a comprehensive plan for communities that manage law and politics in order to not exclude the poorest citizens. Key names: Norman Krumholz, Pierre Clavel
housing market filtering theory
Families will start with low income homes and work their way up leaving the old home for a new generation of lower income owners to settle in.
triple convergence
theory to explain the difficulty of removing peak-hour congestion from highways. In response to a capacity addition three immediate effects occur. Drivers using alternative routes begin to use the expanded highway, those previously traveling at off-peak times (either immediately before or after the peak) shift to the peak (rescheduling behavior as defined previously), and public transport users shift to driving their vehicles.
multimodality
(also known as combined transport) is the transportation of goods under a single contract, but performed with at least two different means of transport; the carrier is liable (in a legal sense) for the entire carriage, even though it is performed by several different modes of transport (by rail, sea and road, for example). The carrier does not have to possess all the means of transport, and in practice usually does not; the carriage is often performed by sub-carriers (referred to in legal language as “actual carriers”). The carrier responsible for the entire carriage is referred to as a multimodal transport operator, or MTO.
intermodality
involves using two or more modes of transportation in a journey. The goal of mixed-mode commuting is often to combine the strengths (and offset the weaknesses) of various transportation options. A major goal of modern intermodal passenger transport is to reduce dependence on the automobile as the major mode of ground transportation and increase use of public transport. To assist and encourage such trips, Intermodal Journey planning software – in the form of online web applications or mobile device apps – is often available for travelers to plan and schedule their journey.
ecological services
Ecological functions of healthy ecosystems which serve all living organisms through purification of air and water, maintenance of biodiversity, decomposition of wastes, soil and vegetation generation and renewal, pollination of crops and natural vegetation, groundwater recharge through wetlands, seed dispersal, greenhouse gas mitigation, and aesthetically pleasing landscapes.
externalities
transaction spillover, is a cost or benefit that is not transmitted through prices[1] or is incurred by a party who was not involved as either a buyer or seller of the goods or services causing the cost or benefit.[2] The cost of an externality is a negative externality, or external cost, while the benefit of an externality is a positive externality, or external benefit.
tragedy of the commons
is the depletion of a shared resource by individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one’s self-interest, despite their understanding that depleting the common resource is contrary to their long-term best interests.
preservation vs. conservation
Conservation is to spend or use sparingly. Preservation is to keep and maintain what you have.
conservation
careful management of the environment and of natural resources; an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change.
preservation
the activity of protecting something from loss or danger; a process that saves organic substances from decay; the condition of being (well or ill) preserved
Patrick Geddes
was against the idea of the tradition gridiron plan (houses in straight rows) wanted a mode of planning that sought to consider “primary human needs” in every intervention, engaging in “constructive and conservative surgery
Paul Davidoff
was a planning theorist responsible for the creation of the “advocacy planning” His work as an advocate was exclusively focused on minority and lower-income communities. (advocacy planning)- Founded by Paul Davidoff, a strategy in which communities must provide a ‘fair’ amount of low-income housing. Notable case: Mt. Laurel New Jersey
Berman v. Parker
Court case that supported the law that an unblighted property could be taken for public purposes through eminent domain with just compensation. Plaintiff was a department store
Mount Laurel
New Jersey case that required communities to provide a “fair” amount of low income housing, Born out of the gentrification of blacks in New Jersey
Love Canal
Canal that was dangerously contaminated by a chemical plant near Niagara falls. Area residents needed to be evacuated.
NHPA
-is legislation intended to preserve historical and archaeological sites in the United States of America. Among other things, the act requires federal agencies to evaluate the impact of all federally funded or permitted projects on historic properties (buildings, archaeological sites, etc.) through a process known as Section 106 Review.
Fair Housing Act
is to protect the buyer/renter of a dwelling from seller/landlord discrimination. Its primary prohibition makes it unlawful to refuse to sell, rent to, or negotiate with any person because of that person’s inclusion in a protected class. The goal is a unitary housing market in which a person’s background does not arbitrarily restrict access.
Air Quality Act
was the first federal legislation involving air pollution. This Act provided funds for federal research in air pollution. Was the first federal legislation involving air pollution. This Act provided funds for federal research in air pollution.
Clean Water Acts
is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Passed in 1972, the act established the goals of eliminating releases of high amounts of toxic substances into water, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983.
NEPA
the law was established to foster and promote the general welfare, to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony, and fulfill the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations of Americans.
ISTEA/TEA 21
is a United States federal law that posed a major change to transportation planning and policy, as the first U.S. federal legislation on the subject in the post-Interstate Highway System era. It presented an overall intermodal approach to highway and transit funding with collaborative planning requirements, giving significant additional powers to metropolitan planning organizations.
MA 40B
is a state statute, which enables local Zoning Boards of Appeals to approve affordable housing developments under flexible rules if at least 20-25% of the units have long-term affordability restrictions.
NRHP
is the United States federal government’s official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property
HOPE VI
This Program was developed as a result of recommendations by National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing, which was charged with proposing a National Action Plan to eradicate severely distressed public housing. The Commission recommended revitalization in three general areas: physical improvements, management improvements, and social and community services to address resident needs.
LIHTC
is an indirect Federal subsidy used to finance the development of affordable rental housing for low-income households. It was created under the Tax Reform Act of 1986 that gives incentives for the utilization of private equity in the development of affordable housing aimed at low-income Americans.
HUD CDBG
Community Development Block Grant
This program is a flexible program that provides communities with resources to address a wide range of unique community development needs. Beginning in 1974, the CDBG program is one of the longest continuously run programs at HUD. The CDBG program provides annual grants on a formula basis to 1209 general units of local government and States.
NEPA/CEQ Council on Environmental Quality
this coordinates Federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. this was established within the Executive Office of the President by Congress as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 provided additional responsibilities.
grayfields/brownfields
Unlike brownfields (which feature actual or perceived levels of environmental contamination), greyfields typically do not require remediation in order to unlock value to an investor. The hidden value, in many cases, is the presence of underlying infrastructure (such as plumbing and sewer, electrical systems, foundations, etc.) allowing a developer to improve the site more efficiently through major or minor capital expenditures that may lead to increased rents and greater value
CERCLA/Superfund
was enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Over five years, $1.6 billion was collected and the tax went to a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
EIS
is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions “significantly affecting the quality of the human environment”. this is a tool for decision making. It describes the positive and negative environmental effects of a proposed action, and it usually also lists one or more alternative actions that may be chosen instead of the action described in this document
CZM
mission is to balance the impacts of human activity with the protection of coastal and marine resources. As a networked program, this was specifically established to work with other state agencies, federal agencies, local governments, academic institutions, nonprofit groups, and the general public to promote sound management of the Massachusetts coast
SIPs (State Implementation Plans
State plans that allow them to adjust the air quality standards according to their needs and costs of cleaning the air.
HUD Section 8
authorizes the payment of rental housing assistance to private landlords on behalf of the low-income households.
Federal Housing Act
Part of the New deal passed during the greatest depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable.
Anthony down
introduced the triple convergence theory
clinton
Third way: EZ/EC; Hope IV
Johnson Roosevelt
Responsible for great society/model city/creative federalism in the 1960’s
Nixon
New Partnership/ horizontal and vertical cooperation
Reagan/Bush
Enterprise zones/ private market incentive and tax subsidies
Rachel Carson
Environmentalist wrote silent springs
CLT
Community Land Trust
A vehicle for developing and preserving affordable home ownership opportunities for households at or below 80% of the area median income.
CDC’S
Community Development Corporation
Non-profit, organizations incorporated to provide programs, offer services and engage in other activities that promote and support local communities
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