Conservation Biology NRS 223 Test 2
Renewable Resources
They will last indefinitely if used wisely.
renewable natural resources
excludes domestic species which are also technically renewable.
Which values are harder to quantify those for renewable or those for non renewable resources?
Those for renewable resources. Because they are often dynamic, mobile and interacting.
What are the main types of benefits? What are some additional types of benefits?
Goods and Services. potential and existence values.
What are the two major wild species enterprises? and what are their estimated values?
Forestry and fisheries. 418 and 70 billion respectively. (Fishery cost is 90 billion and is only economically feasible due to gov subsidies)
What is the global market value of plants and animals?
2 trillion annually!
What’s the problem with estimating the total cost or volume of harvested biota?
A significant porition of plants and animals harvest are used for direct subsistence or trade in local markets where goods not money is switched. Additionally some wild products are never sold at market so we don’t know their market value.
What’s the problem with estimating ecological services? Is there an exception to this rule?
Most of the services provide by genes, species and ecosystems are not sold. Thus we must value them indirectly with other methods. However ecotourism is an exception to this rule because it allows us to directly value people’s desire for nature.
What is the estimate of global ecosystem services?
33 trillion per year with a reasonable range of 16 to 54 trillion.
If we don’t actually pay for ecosystem services why do we calculate their costs?
They help highlight the importance of ecosystems to humans and can be useful in cost benefit analyzes.
CRP program
The Conservation Reserve Program run by the USDA since 1985. Has converted about 7% of cropland in the 48 states to grassland. Wildlife experts feel it has helped slow, stop and sometimes reverse the decline of grassland bird species. Originally for erodible lands now other environmental values are taken into consideration.
Use of contingent-valuation in the EBI
Environmental Benefits Index used to guide enrollment in the conservation reserve program since 1990. Uses contingent-valuation as a way to estimate public values of grassland birds. Studies have shown that the public values improving grassland habitats.
What are potential values?
future values for species that are not currently in direct use. potential or options values exist for all of nature but they are impossible to really quantify.
Existence Values
People derive pleasure and value from ecosystems and species they know they will never visit or see. Can be called a bequest value when it involves people liking that it exists because it might be of some use to future generations. Are very intangible and hard to quantify.
Consumptive vs Non-consumptive uses
using something in a manner that is no longer available for someone else to use vs not doing that (often but not always works for ecoservices).
Indirect use
a third style of use from people who know and value a species or ecosystem through books and films even though they will never encounter them directly.
explicit costs of environmental technology
the costs associated with restoration, translocation and other steps to reduce environmental degradation, pollution and energy use.
What is the cost of habitat management of endangered species for the US? How about for the world?
32-42 million per year. While global 1 to 1.7 billion per year is need to manage existing protected areas with an additional 4 billion more per year to establish and manage adequate protected areas globally.
How much would it cost to create enough marine protected areas?
5-19 billion annually.
What would the total costs be to protect enough habitat global and create subsidies to make farming, logging, fishing ect. ecologically friendly? How does this compare to the un-environmentally friendly subsides already in place?
300 billion per year or about 50$ per person. Which is significantly less than the 1.5 trillion per year we currently pay in negative subsides.
Where are the benefits vs costs of conservation the greatest?
In less developed, tropical regions because than land is cheaper.
Implicit costs
The loss of opportunity to use a resource to make money. It appears most acute when an investment has been made aka buying logging equipment but will appear less acute if that investment can redirected somewhere else. aka use that logging equipment on different trees.
Whose receives the benefits of goods?
producers, manufacturers, merchants and consumers are beneficiaries when ever goods are produced.
Whose receives the benefits of ecosystem services?
Everyone benefits from the ecological services of the earth’s biota.
Whose receives the benefits of potential values?
the principle beneficiaries are are children and grandchildren.
Whose receives the benefits of existence values?
most people hold existence value for biota, but they are focused on a tiny subset of biodiversity.
Whose is harmed by explicit costs?
Taxpayers fun all the government agencies that do conservation work. consumers tend to pay for environmental technology through higher prices whenever businesses internalize their costs. Occasionally businesses will pay for the costs when rising prices aren’t feasible, aka when other businesses don’t pay internalized costs or when profits are regulated by the government. Finally million of individuals who donate to private conservation groups with time, labor and money bear costs.
Who pays for implicit costs?
the costs are often borne most directly by people who make their living by farming, logging, fishing, mining, ect. Merchants and manufacturers also bear some costs.
Who wrote the Tragedy of the commons and when?
Garret Hardin in 1968.
What is the first major problem discussed in chapter 16?
many resources are commonly owned so that the costs of over-exploitation are divided among many while the benefits are taken largely by a few people who do the exploiting. Aka Tragedy of the Commons. major problem for fisheries, grasslands, and our atmosphere and waters (in terms of pollution dumping). To some extent ecotourisms suffers from this too (getting too close to the animals to get a better tip).
What are some solutions to the tragedy of the commons?
Passing and enforcing laws and better enforcement of existing laws to protect biodiversity. co-management between federal councils and state government has produced a successful example of sustainable fishing. Additionally in some cases international laws and treaties will be required. can make regulatory approach fairer by evening the playing field for all. ecological tariffs are a way to increase costs of important goods though the WTO doesn’t easily allow this approach. eliminating perverse subsidies for unsustainable activities. privatizing public resources with leases and permits or number restrictions.
What are some solutions to the tragedy of the commons?
Passing and enforcing laws and better enforcement of existing laws to protect biodiversity. co-management between federal councils and state government has produced a successful example of sustainable fishing. Additionally in some cases international laws and treaties will be required. can make regulatory approach fairer by evening the playing field for all. ecological tariffs are a way to increase costs of important goods though the WTO doesn’t easily allow this approach. eliminating perverse subsidies for unsustainable activities. privatizing public resources with leases and permits or number restrictions.
The biotechnology dilemma:
Should people who have GMOS have exclusive rights to sell them? Should pharmaceutical companies that use plant based products get all the profits? Considerable tension has arisen between developed countries which are rich technology vs developing countries who are rich genetic diversity. the convention on biodiversity at the 1992 earth summit called for a fair and equitable sharing of profits obtained by biotechnological development based on biological resources. The US did not sign this convention.
What is the second problem discussed in Chapter 16?
When biodiversity generates and implicit cost by reducing opportunities to use resources, this cost often falls on relatively few people, especially poor people in rural areas.
What’s the solution to implicit costs born by only a few people?
everyone should bare the burnden of manitaning biodiversity so perhaps money should be gathered to help those people who experience the greatest costs. Redistributing funds is easiest within a single government due to subsides. Internationally it is harder. though debt-for-nature swaps can help as can bilateral aid. community-based conservation aims to help find benefits for local people to offset implicit costs.
conservation easements
a legal mechanism by which landowners give up certain property rights for conservation purposes in return for money from the government.
Debt-for-nature swaps
Many nations have borrowed large sums of money to invest in their economy. the rate of repayment is slow so many banks will sell their loans at 10 to 20% of face value. conservation groups and wealthier nations can buy these debts bonds then area to wipe the debts in exchange for conservation projects which actually can help boost the poorer countries by providing jobs and such. donors can multiply the impact of their initial donations for the debt dramatically. Additionally it can stop poorer countries from exploiting their natural resources to try and pay back their debt! Worked really well in Costa Rica!
3rd problem?
Resource exploitation that yields a quick profit is more attractive than harvesting programs that produce moderate profits, but are sustainable over a longer period.
What do we tend to value get rich quick over longer term sustainability?
discount rates and net present value. NPV says that if your discount rate is 5% then receiving 2000 now is equivalent to the promise of receiving 100 per year for ever. many people are so impoverished that there discount rates are close to 100%, if they do not use the resources now they will probably die. finally some corporations are always ready for quick profits and then reinvestment.
Solutions to resource exploitation over sustainable harvests:
regulations and environmentally based tax reform can try to curb greed. polluter-pay taxes and natural capital depletion taxes. unfortunately many governments face a trade off between encouraging economic activity and protecting their citizens and the environment. additionally give poor people land security and economic assistance can sometimes prevent clear cutting.
4th problem in chapter 16?
Not everyone agrees that the benefits of biodiversity far outweigh the costs of maintaining it. Many weigh only direct economic benefits against explicit and implicit costs, disregarding speculative costs or benefits.
Solutions for those who think conservation does not outweigh the costs:
we should let those who disagree prove the a species lacks value and will not provide any value in the future. the proof of the burden should lie on them. additionally we can weigh environmental technology costs against medical and military endeavors. environmental degradation can have future military and medical costs. additionally maintaining a safe environment can lower national security and medical costs.
butterfly ranching
gives people in papua new guinea and incentive to conserve. butterflies can be sold to tourists, collectors or as live specimens for zoos and such.
What is the coarse-filter strategy to biodiversity?
protecting a cluster of ecosystems that are representative of the region’s ecological diversity and thus are likely to contain a large proportion of the a region’s species. Can be used in reserve creation.
What are the UN’s 7 categories of protected areas?
Strict Nature Reserve, Wilderness area, National Park, Natural monument, Habitat/species management area, Protected landscape/seascape, & Managed resource protected area.
What has been the traditional reasons that reserves were chosen?
aesthetics and recreation. Unusually abundance of biodiversity or uncommon/spectacular species.
What are hotspots?
Areas with a high species richness or a high number of endemic species.
Complementary reserves:
a design technique to try and create a reserve with the small area necessary all the species at the lowest cost. (efficiency) Can be found using computer models.
Irreplaceability
An area that has species that are unique to it making this potential area as a reserve much more important.
What are some weaknesses in the hotspot concept?
With birds there appears to be little overlap between hotspots of species richness, threatened species and endemism. Additionally it appears this is little overlap between hotspots for species richness of different taxonomic groups. thus suggesting that a few well known taxa are not good surrogates for biodiversity writ large.
What is an important strength found by GIS use in terms of the hotspot model?
That patterns of species composition are similar for different taxonomic groups. (e.g. both the butterflies and birds of Site A are different from Site B as measured by species composition).
Now days what is an important driving force for reserve selections?
distribution of ecosystems. either because the ecosystems are reserve targets or because they are a way to organize species conservation based on a coarse-filter concept.
How should we design ecosystem classification systems?
Based on both physical environment (water, soil and climate factors) and the species that dominate that environment. however we should not rely on dominate species too much because they can hide the distribution of less successful species and species continuously change distribution due to climate changes. It’s better to focus more on the physical environment.
gap analysis
a process to identify the holes in the existing network of reserves. Use to identify places for new reserves.
what type of ecosystems are dominant in reserves? what types of ecosystems are under represented?
High-altitude ecosystems because they have pretty scenery at a low cost. in contrast areas with fertile soils and benign climates are uncommon as reserves because they are in high demand for agriculture. Additionally there are a lot of temperate forces and tundra protected while not a lot of grassland is protected and oceans and coastal shelf are way under represented.
How much of each ecosystem is recommended to be protected?
10-50%.
what is the estimated percent of protected areas globally?
12%
What other logistical values are key considerations in reserve planning?
threats that face a potential reserve. (is the landscape facing immediate threats of degradation? if so it might be a higher priority or if too serve it might be a lost cause). feasibility and costs of creating the reserve. the current condition of the area.
What other logistical values are key considerations in reserve planning?
threats that face a potential reserve. (is the landscape facing immediate threats of degradation? if so it might be a higher priority or if too serve it might be a lost cause). feasibility and costs of creating the reserve. the current condition of the area.
What are Jared Diamond’s six reserve features? and what did he base these suggestions on?
1) larger reserves hold more species, 2) a single large reserve is preferable to several small, assuming they all represent the same ecosystem 3) when necessary to have multiple small reserves they should be as close together as possible. 4) arranging small reserves in a cluster rather than a linear fashion facilitates movement. 5) corridors between reserves can facilitate dispersal. 6) circular reserves enhance dispersal within the reserve and minimize negative edge effects. Base in part of Island Bio geography theory.
Importance of reserve size in reserve design?
larger reserves contain a wider range of environmental conditions and thus more species. Additionally they can help include species with large home ranges or species found at very low densities. Second Large reserves are more secure and easier to manage per unit area because larger populations are less likely to go extinct, less edge relatively, and larger reserves are less vulnerable to catastrophes.
Minimum dynamic area
the smallest area that would hold an array of patches representing different stages of disturbance and succession. suggested by pickett and thompson
SLOSS and two main arguers
Single Large or Several Small. Diamond vs Simberloff
What are the effects of landscape context on reserves?
surrounding areas can have air pollution, water pollution, invasive exotics, livestock and poachers that can hurt the reserve. Reserves can help the surround landscape by exporting fresh air, clean water and individual organisms to bolster outside populations. At times the landscape can also bolster than reserve population with animals from outside.
How can we buffer reserves?
imbed them in a matrix of semi-natural ecosystems. this is easiest when the reserve is circular because this gives it less edge per unit area. It is also easier when reserve boundaries are natural boundaries such as watershed or shorelines. ( a reserve that includes an entire watershed will not deal with many water quality problems).
the one upside military?
reserves being built on international boundaries as buffers in case of war.
What are the 4 kinds of movements that need to be retained between reserves?
Daily movements organisms make that comprise their home range, annual migrations many animals make between winter and summer ranges or dry and wet season ranges. (important to connect for intermediate distances and to have stepping stones for long distances). third are dispersal movements that young plants and animals make away from their parents. (are vital to keep reserve organisms connected to conspecifics living elsewhere)and finally are range shifts that species will make in response to climate change. can be pigged back with other efforts to maintain linear belts such as for hiking trails or riparian zones. however narrow corridors can often be not cost effective because of various different ownerships and vulnerability.
reserve management of human visitors
managers must deal with the proliferation of roads, air pollution, sewage disposal, plant trampling, soil erosion and so on that comes with lots of visitors. Sometimes they must manage firewood collection or fishing, let people get something out of the reserve. Very important to foster the goodwill of the local people. In poor countries this can involve giving them a free weekend or allowing them limited forms of exploitation to give them a vested interest. Also can allow them to give tours or other employment. very important to link ecotourism with the local community.
Natural disturbance management in reserves:
disturbances are often critical in maintaining the natural structure and function of ecosystems. public often doesn’t understand this and will question managers who allow disturbances. Should they control it? should they replant afterward? wildfires are a particular concern especially when the natural wildfire frequency isn’t known.
Water Regimes in reserve management:
The supply of water is limited and people often want to reduce the reserve’s share for other uses! Or in the case of the everglades how can we restore some natural water regime to the area? wetlands will often have the water regime manipulated to maximize waterfowl. And wells might be dug in arid lands to provide water to organisms. but this can concentrate disease and could upset the food chain balance.
Invasive and Overabundance natives in reserve management:
many reserves have exotics or too many native organisms, both of which they would like to reduce the pops of. logistically and politically these task are difficult. public affection often curtails efforts to control deer and horse populations. NZ has learned how to eliminate rates and other exotic mammals from it’s islands.
3 key steps in gap-analysis
creating maps of the area showing vegetation cover, species distribution and other features of interest such as slop, soil or climate. 2) overlaying these maps to identify the gaps. 3) placing these results in context to determine priorities for conservation. this can involve looking at the habitat quality, PVAs, feasibility or threatened species distribution to give more light to your gaps.
What are semi-natural ecosystems?
Those that modify ecosystems through management but still leave the ecosystem semi-natural. Ex) wood, livestock and fish management.
How much of earth’s surface is covered by forests?
less than 6%.
Where is the major US forestry conflict?
Pacific Northwest.
nurse logs
fallen tress that support another generation of trees by providing nutrients and moisture for seedlings.
How can we make forestry more sound with conservation biology?
2. Follow the natural disturbance pattern of the area. Have an uneven forest stand where that’s the norm and lots of different aged even forest stand where that’s the norm. 3. let some trees grow old and die or set aside a riparian patch. 4. Silvercultural techniques to let trees grow bigger/cutting them down later (to support late succession animals) 4) Allow for native species composition, don’t grow all one species or all invasive.
How can we make livestock grazing/rangelands more sound with conservation biology?
1) Use species that are or resemble native grazers. 2) try to follow the spatial and temporal patterns of native grazers 3) allow for natural disturbance regimes to continue, aka let fires happen 4) work to lessen the need to kill predators or competitors to the livestock 5) using environmentally friendly management techniques (don’t realize exotics and build wildlife friendly fences)
How much of earth’s land surface do rangelands cover?
25%
game cropping
they systematic sustainable harvest of wild larger animals mammals, birds and reptiles. (provide them with waterholes and rangelands)
How can we make fisheries more conservationally sound?
1) don’t introduce exotics or try to eliminate native “trash” fish. 2) be careful when modifying the physical or chemical environment so as not to upset things too greatly.
Problems with fishing?
exploited species are often keystone species. fishing does not follow natural mortality rates. water pollution, loss of wetlands, dam construction, and other such factors must also be dealt with to keep fish healthy.
Extractive Reserves
Large land reserves that are open for limited extraction such as nuts or rubber but closed to intrusive extraction like logging or agriculture.
How do we integrate natural resource management and biodiversity maintenance??
Try to be consistent with ecological processes!
What is probably the most important proximate cause for biodiversity losses? what are the real causes?
creating cultivated ecosystems because of burgeoning human population and demand for products.
why should conservationist be concerned with farmers?
1) careful management of cultivated ecosystems can support some biodiversity and 2) thoughtful stewardship of such ecosystems can ameliorate their negative effects on the surround landscapes and minimize their rate of expansion.
Maintaining relicts
tiny pieces of habitat that receive little or no cultivation. farmers should try to maintain, expand and restore them. keep hendgroves, parie potholes, let some land fallow.
keeping diversity on a farm
1) maintain relects 2) grow a variety of commodities to keep landscape diversity and such. don’t specialize! have shade coffee 3) LIMIT PESTICIDE USE
Minimizing the negative effects of cultivated ecosystems
1) stay on top of soil erosion 2) use fertilizer and pesticides conservatively. Integrated Pest Management. 3)increase productivity in a sustainable manner, to expand less
How do we get people to be more conservation friendly?
government subsides, conservation easements.
3 types of land use
1) cultivated high level of commodity production 2) protected ecosystems with no commodity production 3) modified ecosystem with modes resource use. ** At times it may be preferable to replace extensive modified lands with intensive cultivated lands so more land can be reserved. (in marine this could be aquaculture)
Built Ecosystems
1) Making them pleasant can reduce urban sprawl or reverse it. 2) Facilitate positive interactions with wildlife through parks and plants and such 3) allow urban species are not usually endangered they may be important because they are highly resistant through genetic differences 4) Controlling imports and exports for cities is a must to limit their impacts. 5) just generally keep built ecosystems habitable for both people and other life forms. keep those green patches going and get the community involved in them.
restoration vs rehabilitation vs replacement vs enhancement
trying to return an ecosystem to it’s original state. vs. improving a degraded ecosystem towards a greater value vs. creating a completely new ecosystem out of a degraded one. vs improving the value of an ecosystem.
Four forms of mitigation for the impact of a proposed development.
1) avoid the impact all together 2) the site should be restored after the impact is over 3) restore nearby degraded sites to replace the lost one 4) purchase and permanently protect some natural ecosystems to make up for lost ones.
6 basic steps to restoring an ecosystem
1) set a goal- be realistic how much can we do. what are our reference conditions. 2) determine a strategy and methods- work together with experts to try and understand things as well as possible. get the public involved? 3) remove the source of degradation- sometimes this may mean getting rid of exotic first, especially on islands. other times they can be dealt with later. 4) Restore the physical environment- structure, soil, hydrologic regime, disturbance regime 5) Restore the biota- translocate poulations, particularly plants, try to work with organisms surviving on or near site to limit costs 6) Be patient.
Frank Egler
Not only are ecosystems more complex than we think they are, they are more complex than we can think.
Forest of the Pacific Northwest- the controversy
Initially it was spotted owl vs timber. Now it’s FEMAT- identifying a large set of Late- Sucessional Reserves and Riparian Reserves desgined to protect virtyally the entire suite of species associated with old forests. still allows for some commerical logging and lets thinning and dead timber salvage occur which means ROAD ACCESS.
Restoration of Iraq Marshes
Saddam Hussien had canals and dams constructed and burning organized to destroy the wetlands and flush out the rebels. by 2000 90% of the marshes were gone. 2003 Eden Again was started. dikes were broken to restore water flow. by 2005 50% of the land had been reflooded. yay!
Black robin restoration
only 7 in 1976. Now there are over 250 black robins living on 2 islands and receiving no regular management.
How can we properly manage populations?
We must first understand the population structure and the factors affecting it. The. Once we understand the problems affecting the population we can 1) provide scarce resources, 2) control threats such as humans or predators 3) directly manipulate the population by moving species to a new location for example.
How can we meet the needs of a given species?
By providing it with the ecosystem is uses as a habitat. Maintain that and the species should be fine. Sometimes however the ecosystem is almost a suitable habitat but has a limiting factor such as good, water, or shelter. In this case we sometimes directly provide the missing resource.
Feeding animals
people love to feed animals. bird feeding probably helps lots of bird species in the winter. It’s often nice to provide large birds of prey with clean uncontaminated carcasses. cultivating types of plants for animals to feed on can also help their survival- yay butterfly gardens. save moth by managing touch-me not balsam. salt blocks to help animals acquire macro-nutrients.
Downsides to feeding wild animals
can foster long-term dependence on people, what if the feeding stops?
feeding can concentrate animals and make them more vulnerable to disease and predation.
What surprising trick can help rare plants?
reducing soil fertility can at times help rare plants which prefer low fertility areas.
Providing water
sometimes providing drinking water can make sense to help endangered desert animals. However overally providing water to an arid region would just replace an arid region with a less arid one and decrease possibly decrease overall biodiversity.
What does a physical environment provide for organisms? what’s a biological environment?
1) a benign micro-climate & shelter 2) concealment from predators or prey 3) a substrate on which to live to avoid being moved by gravity, wind or water. Although other organisms might provide the shelter it’s still physical. a biological environment is the suite of competitors, predators and other species with which one interacts.
Providing physical environment
providing nesting sites is a widespread practice. also we can provide sites for day or night or for hibernating.
Helping species interactions
fixing populations limited by the scarcity of a symbiont. Hand-pollination. fake birds for social stimulation.
The trouble with over-exploitation
Most people view it as unethical as a speeding. It is often not even illegal, even for endangered plants. Many plants are on private property and governments are reluctant to control what happens on private property. To diminish the acceptability of over-exploitation we must educate people and try to approach the social, economic and political issues. Enforcement is difficult because of having to watch remote areas, lack of local support or lack of skills to protect plants or insects. Additionally supply and demand says rare species equal big bucks.
Compensatory vs Additive mortality
Compensatory- the harvest does not increase the population’s mortality above what it would have been under natural conditions. (hunting compensates for lake of wolves) vs additive- where the harvest mortality significantly increase total mortality.
How do we limit harvesting?
Limiting the number that can be taken, limiting who can do the harvesting, limiting when harvesting is allowed, limiting where harvesting can occur. And also limiting how harvesting occurs aka less by bycatch & such.
Managing indirect human threats
often we do not mean to hurt the animals, we are just negligent or ignorant. but with knowledge and caring we can often fix this. Making roads animal crossing friendly, gates and fences that prevent disturbing vulnerable species, fences that let migratory animals across, warning coloring for electrical wires and such.
Predators vs grazers vs parasites
attack, kill and consume vs consuming part, but generally not killing a larger number of prey vs organisms that obtain their nutrients from one of very few host individuals, while causing harm but not immediate death.
Dealing with predators
Dealing with exotic predators is a big concern, eliminating them form islands can be especially important. It becomes trickier when the predator is native. For example only destroying gull nests could help tern populations. Most conservations prefer non-lethal control for native species. fences or spikes to prevent landing. sometimes we must chose between two native species that are of concern.
Dealing with Grazers
Grazers may not do immediate damage but cumulative effects can be dramatic and devastating. Grazing often goes unnoticed especially in our forests. There large numbers can make control much harder and eradication impossible. Additionally it can be quite controversial because we heart deer. Fences can be expensive because we’d need so much of them.
Parasite and Pathogen control
stressed animals can succumb to parasites very easily. conservation medicine is combing veterinary science and conservation biology to control parasites. Simplest ways to help are by keeping the population in good health with adequate resources. Another good approach is to avoid over crowding and limit hands on exposure. vaccines can work but they are expensive and daunting tasks. eradication is nearly impossible but luckily most don’t mind programs designed to kill parasites and pathogens.
controlling competitors
conservations often find it necessary to till the competition between species towards the rarer species. common for plants- weeding and herbicides. regulating natural patterns of competition that are part of succession. aka fires. generally helping endangered animals against competition.
brood parasitism
a form of competition where a bird lays it’s eggs in another birds nest.
Types of direct manipulation
expensive and tricky and often desperate last resorts. translocation- moving a species from one habitat to another and artificial breeding- methods to increase the reproductive output of small populations.
Translocations
3 basic forms. introduction- new site where they previously did not exist. reintroduction- site where they had been extirpated. Augmentation- supplementing small populations with individuals from elsewhere. Translocations are often common from one small island to another. Reintroductions can in cases help restore ecosystems, for example by moving live coral colonies onto dead ones. However translocation is often a failure, some estimate less than half the projects are successful. auqgment a population is common for sportsman but conservations worry about bring disease, introducing exotic alleles and reducing adaptability. finally sometimes translocation becomes a method to get ride of too many of one species, return a species to the wild, or make way for development =/.
Lessons learned from translocations
if the underlying cause that caused the population to become extinct the first time is still there, translocation will not work. second successful reintroduction often requires repeated translocations of substantial numbers of organisms aka long term commitment and money. soft releases are sometimes needed- where fit individuals are selecting and some husbandry is offered at first. Finally failure often results from populations that have been captive multiple generations.
Double-clutching and cross fostering
Artificial breeding is called the the zenith of hands on manipulation. Double-clutching- removing one set of eggs to induce an animal to produce a second clutch and then incubating the first clutch elsewhere. cross-fostering- when other wild species are enlisted to serve as foster parents. (can also be a reintroduction tool). However we have to be careful of ensuing identity crises. or if humans are foster parents the animals might not learn to have a health fear of humans and other predators.
Head-starting
some species try to beat the odds of death by producing huge numbers of small young independent at birth. If we can reduce mortality during the vulnerable youth we can increase the number that survive to adulthood. such techniques to increase survivorship for young independent organisms is called headstarting. common for turtles. Downsides: Artifical incubation can skew sex ratios, hatchlings can have maladaptive behavior and it can take efforts away from the fundamental issues of habitat loss and losses at more critical life states (turtles in nets).
How can we maintain genetic diversity?
retain a various populations that occupy a species entire geographic range and the full spectrum of habitats that they occupy. Because local populations often have unique genetic adaptions. (When a species has a high level of diversity between populations vs within populations it is vital to maintain multiple populations.)
reintroductions & outbreeding
with peregrines reintroducing multiple populations seems to be allowing them to adapt however with some species out breeding can cause problems.
Ex situ vs in situ conservation
conservation that takes place outside of a specie’s natural habitat vs conservation that takes place within a species natural habitat.
Goals of zoos, aquariums and botanical gardens
previously recreational values were the sole goal, although they remain important for those values today there is a greater emphasis in education. Research/conservation are also becoming important goals for many places.
Scientific research in zoos
Very important, for many species our understanding of their physiology, diseases, reproductive biology, nutrition and so on has come primarily for studies on captive populations. Captive populations have lead us to develop safe tranquilizers for studying wild populations and have allowed us to learn techniques for safely attaching radio transmitters. Finally from zoo populations we came up with the idea that inbreeding is a problem in small wild populations.
World Conservation Monitoring Center’s captivity estimates
24 plant species and 36 animals survive today only in captivity. There are additionally captive populations that can be considered insurance against future losses of wild populations.
Limits to ex situ conservation
captive populations don’t always survive, are captive populations really the same as wild ones? Most of the world’s biodiversity lie in insects and other small life forms that are seldom kept in captivity. Additionally there are financial limitations to how many species we can house.
Breeding in Captive populations
Some argue there should be two types of captive breeding: one to maintain populations for exhibition and a second to keep animals for reintroductions. Most breeding is designed to maximize the retention of genetic diversity. studbooks- allow mangers to keep track of ancestors & pedigrees for many captive species. The International Species Inventory system is a large database for pedigree information. Plant managers usually focus on keeping closely related taxa from breeding with one another in the artificial proximity of a garden. With studbooks comes the need to exchange breeding stock & in some cases sperm although artificial insemination techniques are not available for many species. With pedigree information we can enhance attempts to maintain genetic diversity with careful breeding but this requires removing many animals from breeding programs and simply keeping them alive (which uses up scare zoo resources).
Storing biodiversity
Many microorganisms are kept in ex-situ storage through freeze-drying and cryopreservation. cryopreservation for seaman and embryos is common with domestic mammals and there is promise for developing long term storage for wild animals. Finally seeds for many plant species are often stored in cold, dry conditions. However growing-out must be conducted periodically. Where seeds are taken out, grown to new plants and their seeds store to prevent seed deterioration(costly and time consuming). Genetic material such as DNA is also being preserved to keep useful information about the genetic composition of a species alive.
While it may be possible to reintroduce a species to the wild after it has been confined to captivity for a few generations, experiencing selection for survival in artificial environments, it is never easy.
Failure rate is high!
Augmenting wild populations
Some ex situ conservationist envision a day when they will routinely introduce genetic material from a captive population to a wild population by transferring pollen, sperm, or embryos.
ex situ conservationist must be aware of wild populations and make decisions to complement in situ conservation.
to prevent black markets, depleting wild populations and to promote a diversity of ex situa animals at different zoos and looking for animals whose wild populations would benefit the most from ex situ conservation. (don’t just house species that you think the public wants)
Controversy surrounding ex situ conservation
some people object to it on ethical standards, many prefer in situ conservation saying ex situ is too narrowly focuses, too expensive and too risky. Finally many say captive breeding programs obscure the real problems facing the species. Sumatran Rhinos- millions spent on 40 individuals to be caught and held in captivity. Only 9 survive and only 2 births have been recorded since 1984. Time and money was wasted that could have better gone to habitat preservation.
Balancing ex situ conservation with in situ conservation
Many zoos now have conservation units working all over the globe or special relationships with nature reserves to try and get more involved in important in situ conservation. Zoos & gardens can raise money for other organizations that undertake in situ conservation. And if zoos and gardens work to become major supports of in situ conservation then they can focus there efforts more on housing ambassadors for conservation education and research and focus less on expensive and tricky reintroductions.
landraces
a diverse array of local varieties of crops to help maintain genetic diversity for traditional farmers. landraces are improtant and can be maintained by keeping them on the farms where they were first develop ( a type of in situ conservation for domestic species). Finanical aid might be needed to keep local farmers from switching to high-yield varities and this is a good investment because maintaining genetic diversity helps provide material for the every changing crops agriculture develops.
Importance of maintaining the diversity of domesticated species
Local varieties are best at adapting to local conditions and need less fertilizers and pesticides. Additionally it’s improtant to maintain genetic diversity so that there is genetic material to work with in developing new crop lines that react to the ever-changing environments, technologies and preferences of humans.
What work needs to be done for domesticated conservation
We must protect landraces, rare local breeds and the wild ancestors of domesticated breeds, especially the animals.
The Arabian Oryx
There population plummeted from human overexploitation In 1962 a captive breeding program was started. (In 1972 the last original wild herd was killed) It was an international effort that involved Kenya, Arizona, London, Saudi Arabia, Morocco and others. in 1978 Arabian Oryz from the US were released back to Jordon and Isreal and then later to Oman. held in large natural enclosures and watched so they could adjust to the area. by 1996 there were over 400 wild oryx however in by 1998 only 138 animals and 228 females were left after poaching. Since then more careful monitoring has allowed the population to increase, there are now over 1000 oryx in Saudi Arabia. The project can be deemed a success but at a great cost and poaching is certainly not helping.
Why are Jewish and Islamic cultures against eating pigs?
The tradition mostly like rose out of the fact that these religions originated in a desert culture where raising pigs was a waste of limited resources. Harris says many cultural riddles have a rational, ecologically based explanation.
Old Testament Isaiah 5:8
Woe to you who add house to house and join field to filed till no space is left and you live alone in the land.
What cultural differences affect the way people interact with nature
The combine religion, history, politics, economics and technology of that culture.
What’s the difference between the values of rural and urban people?
rural people tend to have pragmatic attitudes based on regular interactions while urban people are more likely to have conceptual attitudes towards nature based on removal from direct experience. Both rural and urban people can have positive or negative affects on the environment. When urban people outvote rural people in matters on the environment that affect primarily rural people trouble can arise.
ecofeminism
Both nature and women have been subjected to domination by men and we must work toward more harmony and balance.
Differences between men and women in conservation
Women may or may not be more nurturing towards nature. more importantly men and women differ in the species they value because they have different interactions. In Africa for example men interact with the large mammals while women interact with a broader array of wild life- many plants, birds, reptiles, fish and insects. Some have said the tendency of conservation to focus heavily on large mammals may in part reflect what is still a male-dominate culture.
Stephen Kellert and his 10 attitudes.
has created systematic techniques for describing how people feel about animals and using them to better understand how our values differ according to our different cultures and characteristics. He has come up with 10 attitudes: Naturalistic, Ecologistic, Humanisitic, Moralistic, Scientific, Aesthetic, Utilitarian, Dominionisitic, Negativisitic, and Neeutralistic
Naturalistic
Showing an interest in, and an affection for, wild animals and the outdoors (10% in US)
Ecologistic
Concern with ecosystems, particularly the interrealtionships between species and thier habitats. (7% in the US)
Humanistic
Showing a strong affection for individual animals such as pets or large wild animals. Strong tendency for anthropomorphism. (34% in the US)
Moralistic
Concern with the ethical treatment of animals; strongly opposed to cruelty towards animals or presumed over-exploitation. (20% for US)
Scientific
Intellectual interest in organisms as biological entities. (1% in US)
Aesthetic
Interest in the physical attractiveness and symbolic characteristics of animals. (15% in US)
Utilitarian
Interest in the practical value of animals and their habitats. (20% in the US)
Dominionistic
Interest in the mastery and control of animals, typically in sporting situations. (US 3%)
Negativistic
Preferring to actively avoid animals becase of dislike or fear. (2% in the US)
Neutralistic
Preferring to passively avoid animals because of a lack of interest. (35% in the US)
Kellert’s results
women ascribe greater preservation values to nonhuman species, express greater concern for species conservation relative to property rights and seek stronger support for endangered species protection than men. Rural people tend to score higher for utilitarian and naturalistic attitudes while urban people have higher scores for moralistic and humanistic attitudes. The US has higher moralistic and ecologistic attitudes while Japan has more dominionistic attitudes.
Why doesn’t the public favor the coarse-filter approach?
We tend to be more concerned with individual species with strong asethetic, cultural and historical associations than with conceptual entities such as ecosystems or biodiversity.
What types of species were underfunded relative to the positive values most people extent to them?
Plants and amphibians.
What values must we change to maintain biodiversity
We must work towards encouraging naturalistic, ecologistic, aesthetic and moralistic attitudes and discouraging negativistic, neutralistic, domnionistic and utilitarian values.
Baba Dioum
For in the end we will conserve only what we love. We will love only what we understand and we will understand only what we are taught.”
How does environmental education help to shift people’s attitudes?
Through information and experience. However the solution isn’t always more education in fact people with the greatest factual knowledge, aka rural people who deal with tigers, often express the most negative attitudes towards them. Although it’s true people can’t be concerned with what they don’t know or understand. Additionally participating in activities outdoors can foster more naturalistic and ecologistic scores.
What type of education needs to be promoted in our teaching curriculum?
Basic natural history study- which combines both themes via personal discovery of organisms, their diversification and their environmental relationships.
How can we work with local people to promote conservation?
First we cannot try to force them out so as to manage biodiversity, this can lead to resentment. Additionally if cultivated carefully providing knowledge that a local species is unique can be a source of great pride and conservation action for local people.
Anthropocentric vs biocentric
believing that people are the center of the universe vs believing that life, in all various forms is the center of the universe. We need to shift people more towards biocentrism.
biophlia
love of the biota. a term coined in 1993 by E.O. Wilson to describe the innate emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms. We evolved to be connected with other species. additionally this involves the suggestion that human performance and health are connected to biological diversity.
nested hierarchy
a conceptional ethical sequence from the narrowest concern of oneself to the broadest concern for the whole biosphere. Raising people’s level of concern to embrace all species and ecosystems is an essential goal for conservation biologists.
Bahama Parrot Case Study
First of all we killed the native people of the Bahama’s the Lucayans but let’s try to save the bird shall we? Habitat loss, hunting, feral cats and capture for the pet trade have resulted in a great decline in population numbers. 1990 a program to save the bird was initiated.- campaign to gather public support via visual messages, education in schools and fact awareness, as well as other media releases such as music videos and press releases. The campaign has worked- a 10,700 ha national park was created on Abaco Island for the bird and many other species and has overall sensitized Bahamians to the ecological well-being and biological riches on their nation.
Alpha, Beta, Gamma
Locally or just single site, Beta measures the uniqueness between 2 different sites and Gamma measures diversity on a large scale.
Conservation Reserve Program
USDA Farm Service began in the 1950s to help fight erosion. Federal program important for farmers and conservation. Government gives incentives for farmers to leave some land undeveloped.
Conservation Easements
An easement which creates a legally enforceable land preservation agreement between a landowner and a government agency or land trust.
Protected Area
An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and
of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or
other effective means!
PA networks
linked seperate PAs into a reserve network for animals with different life stages, migratory, ect. Can be on a regional, state, national or international stage. Can be link physically or for a common management goal.
RAMSAR sites
International treaty for wetland preservation.
Kingman reef
one of the largest marine reserves in the world created by George Bush.
IUCN
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Importance of large PAs
To keep functionality intact, for wide-ranging species and for meta-populations.
What helps organize priority levels for selecting PA sites?
richness, diversity, abundance, rarity, threat levels, irreplacibility, phylogenetic distinctivness, representation, endemicity.
Who was for SL and who was for SS?
Diamond Single Large vs Simberloft Several Small.
Shifting-baseline or inter-generational amnesia
Each generation accepts a diminished environment as the new norm!
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme. facilitates international cooperation on environmental issues and acts as a source of information.
WTO
World Trade Organization, regulates trade between nations and sometimes deals with the environment.
World bank
deals with development and conservation.
England and local level conservation
harvest mice were vulnerable to habitat destruction, farming practices and pesticides. Conservation breeding in Chester zoo & experimental releases.
Regional level conservation
Tenkile, Endangered tree kangeroo. vunerable to habitat loss & hunting. only 100 left in wild. Australasain regional assocation of zoological parks and aquaria or ARAZA. worked with local communities and local education, aim to increase awarness of the animal and habitat. trying to provide alternative food for local people.
Simpson’s Reciprocal Index
measures the probability that two individuals randomly selected from a sample will belong to the same species (or some category other than species). 1 is the lowest possible. The higher you go the more diversity. does not consider eveness.
Shannon Index
takes into account number of species and evenness. additionally unique species or more eveness will both increase the value.
Jaccard similarity coefficient
is a statistic used for comparing the similarity and diversity of sample sets. The lower the value the more unique the sites are.
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