Conservation Ecology Ch 4-6
Greenhouse gases
– carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are transparent to sunshine, allowing light energy to pass through the atmosphere and warm the surface of the Earth.
Greenhouse effect-
the warming of the Earth by its atmospheric gases.
Global Climate Change- refers to the complete set of climate characteristics that are changing now and will continue to change in the future.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-
a study group of leading scientists organized by the United Nations
Assisted Colonization-
transplanting isolated populations of rare and endangered species to new localities at higher elevations and closer to the poles, where they can survive and thrive.
Bushmeat Crisis-
the decline in animal populations caused by the intensive hunting of animals.
Maximum Sustainable Yield-
the greatest amount of a resource that can be harvested each year and replaced through population growth without detriment to the population.
Exotic Species-
species that occur outside their natural ranges because of human activity.
Genetic Swamping-
when invasive species hybridize with native species and varieties
Genetically Modified Organisms-
organisms in which scientists add genes from a different species into the organism’s genetic code
Extinct-
when no member of the species remains alive anywhere in the world
Extinct in the wild-
when the only living members of a species are in captivity
Globally Extinct- a species that no longer lives anywhere in the world
Locally Extinct/ Extirpated-
When a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited
Ecologically Extinct-
when a species persists at such reduced numbers that its effect on other species within its ecological community is negligible.
Extinction Debt-
the presumed eventual loss of a species following habitat destruction and fragmentation
Island biogeography model-
the synthesis of the relationship between the area of an island and the number of species it contains
Allee Effect-
when population size or density falls below a certain number, many species of social animals are unable to forage, mate, or defend themselves, and their populations cannot persist
Minimum Viable Population (MVP)-
minimum # of individuals needed to survive
Minimum Dynamic Area (MDA)-
the min amount of habitat needed
Inbreeding-
mating among close relatives
Outbreeding-
opposite of inbreeding
Outbreeding depression-
a condition that results in weakness, sterility, or lack of adaptability
Population Bottleneck-
occurs when a population is greatly reduced in size and loses rare alleles if no individuals possessing those alleles survive and reproduce
Founder effect-
occurs when a few individuals leave one population and establish another new population
Stochasticity-
random variation
Environmental stochasticity-
variation in the physical environment
Demographic stochasticity-
variation in birth and death rates
Extinction Vortex-
the term used to describe the process that declining populations undergo when”a mutual reinforcement occurs among biotic and abiotic processes that drives population size downward to extinction”
Natural history-
distinct characteristics of a species
Population Biology-
the dynamic processes that affect population size and distribution
Census-
a count of the number of individuals present in a population
Survey-
using repeatable sampling to estimate the number of individuals or the density of a species in an ecosystem
Demographic Studies-
follow known individuals of different ages and sizes in a population to determine their rates of growth, reproduction, and survival.
Population Viability Analysis (PVA)-
an extension of demographic studies PVA can be thought of as risk assessment
Source Populations-
core populations with fairly stable numbers
Sink Populations-
satellite populations that fluctuate with arrivals of immigrants
International Union for Conservation of Nature (ICUN)
Red List Criteria-
quantitative measures of threat based on the probability of extinction
Endangered Species Act (ESA)-
to “provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend may be conserved”
Habitat Conservation Plans-
regional plans that allow development in designated areas but also protect remnants of ecosystems that contain groups of actual or potentially endangered species.
Restocking program-
involves releasing individuals into an existing population to increase its size and gene pool. These released individuals may have been raised in captivity or may be wild individuals collected elsewhere
Reintroduction program-
involves releasing individuals into an ecologically suitable site within their historical range where the species no longer occurs
Introduction program-
involves moving individuals to areas outside their historical range but suitable for the species
Soft Release-
species that receive special care and assistance upon release
Hard release-
species abruptly released with no outside help
Mitigation-
when developers propose creating new habitat or new populations to compensate for what has occurred or is about to occur
in situ-
preservation of existing species and ecosystems in the wild
ex situ-
preservation of species in artificial environments under human supervision
artificial incubation-
keeping eggs in ideal hatching conditions
artificial insemination-
like animal IVF
embryo transfer-
involves implanting fertilized eggs of a rare species into surrogate mothers of common species
genome resource bank (GRB)-
involves freezing purified DNA, sperm, eggs, embryos, and other tissue of species so they can be used to contribute to breeding programs
arboretum-
a specialized botanical garden focusing on trees and other woody plants
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