– carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are transparent to sunshine, allowing light energy to pass through the atmosphere and warm the surface of the Earth.
the warming of the Earth by its atmospheric gases. Global Climate Change- refers to the complete set of climate characteristics that are changing now and will continue to change in the future.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-
a study group of leading scientists organized by the United Nations
transplanting isolated populations of rare and endangered species to new localities at higher elevations and closer to the poles, where they can survive and thrive.
the decline in animal populations caused by the intensive hunting of animals.
Maximum Sustainable Yield-
the greatest amount of a resource that can be harvested each year and replaced through population growth without detriment to the population.
species that occur outside their natural ranges because of human activity.
when invasive species hybridize with native species and varieties
Genetically Modified Organisms-
organisms in which scientists add genes from a different species into the organism’s genetic code
when no member of the species remains alive anywhere in the world
Extinct in the wild-
when the only living members of a species are in captivity Globally Extinct- a species that no longer lives anywhere in the world
Locally Extinct/ Extirpated-
When a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited
when a species persists at such reduced numbers that its effect on other species within its ecological community is negligible.
the presumed eventual loss of a species following habitat destruction and fragmentation
Island biogeography model-
the synthesis of the relationship between the area of an island and the number of species it contains
when population size or density falls below a certain number, many species of social animals are unable to forage, mate, or defend themselves, and their populations cannot persist
Minimum Viable Population (MVP)-
minimum # of individuals needed to survive
Minimum Dynamic Area (MDA)-
the min amount of habitat needed
mating among close relatives
opposite of inbreeding
a condition that results in weakness, sterility, or lack of adaptability
occurs when a population is greatly reduced in size and loses rare alleles if no individuals possessing those alleles survive and reproduce
occurs when a few individuals leave one population and establish another new population
variation in the physical environment
variation in birth and death rates
the term used to describe the process that declining populations undergo when”a mutual reinforcement occurs among biotic and abiotic processes that drives population size downward to extinction”
distinct characteristics of a species
the dynamic processes that affect population size and distribution
a count of the number of individuals present in a population
using repeatable sampling to estimate the number of individuals or the density of a species in an ecosystem
follow known individuals of different ages and sizes in a population to determine their rates of growth, reproduction, and survival.
Population Viability Analysis (PVA)-
an extension of demographic studies PVA can be thought of as risk assessment
core populations with fairly stable numbers
satellite populations that fluctuate with arrivals of immigrants
International Union for Conservation of Nature (ICUN) Red List Criteria-
quantitative measures of threat based on the probability of extinction
Endangered Species Act (ESA)-
to “provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend may be conserved”
Habitat Conservation Plans-
regional plans that allow development in designated areas but also protect remnants of ecosystems that contain groups of actual or potentially endangered species.
involves releasing individuals into an existing population to increase its size and gene pool. These released individuals may have been raised in captivity or may be wild individuals collected elsewhere
involves releasing individuals into an ecologically suitable site within their historical range where the species no longer occurs
involves moving individuals to areas outside their historical range but suitable for the species
species that receive special care and assistance upon release
species abruptly released with no outside help
when developers propose creating new habitat or new populations to compensate for what has occurred or is about to occur
preservation of existing species and ecosystems in the wild
preservation of species in artificial environments under human supervision
keeping eggs in ideal hatching conditions
like animal IVF
involves implanting fertilized eggs of a rare species into surrogate mothers of common species
genome resource bank (GRB)-
involves freezing purified DNA, sperm, eggs, embryos, and other tissue of species so they can be used to contribute to breeding programs
a specialized botanical garden focusing on trees and other woody plants