Major Ecosystems of the World

Major Ecosystems of the World

Biome A relatively large and distinct terrestrial area characterized by climate, soil, plants, and animals regardless where it’s located. Tundra/Arctic Tundra Occurs in extreme northern latitudes wherever the snow melts seasonally. Permafrost Permanently frozen ground that varies in depth and thickness. Taiga/Boreal Forest A region of coniferous forests in the Northern Hemisphere; located just south of the Tundra in northern parts of North American and Eurasia. Temperate Deciduous Forest A forest biome that occurs in temperate areas where annual precipitation ranges from about 75 cm to 125 cm. Temperate Graasland A grassland characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and less rainfall then is found in a temperate deciduous forest biome. Chaparral A biome with a Mediterranean climate (mild, moist winters and hot, dry summers); characterized by small-leaved evergreen shrubs and small plants. Desert A fragile ecosystem in which lack of precipitation limits plant growth. Thermal Stratification The marked layering (separation into warm and cold layers) of temperate lakes during the […]

Macro and fish ID

Decapoda 10 legseg. Crawfish Amphipoda Laterally Compressed eg. Shrimp Isopoda Dorso-ventrally Flattenedeg. Pillbugs Diptera Fly larvaeWorm looking things Coleoptera Beetles Lepidoptera Wooly worm looking things Hemiptera True bugsPiercing mouth parts Megaloptera Huge pincers Trichoptera Caddisflies Plecoptera 2 tailsStoneflies Odonata DragonfliesHinged jaw Ephemeroptera 3 tails, gills on tailMayflies Collembola Springtails

M & P

Define a mineral. A mineral is a naturally occuring solid with a highly ordered atomic arrangement and a definite, but not fixed, homogeneous chemical compound. How thick is the oceanic crust? The continental crust? oceanic 6-8 km and made of basalt   continental 35-45km thick and made of silicon and aluminum Name the three types of plate bonds. Divirgent, convergent and transform faults Mohorovicic Discontinuity Properties of an Isometric crystal. a1=a2=a3 all angles 90 Properties of a tetragonal crystal. a1=a2 does not = c all angles 90 Properties of a Orthorhombric crystal. A does not = B does not = C all angles 90 Properties of a monoclinic crystal. A does not = B does not = C angle AC does not = 90 angle AB and angle CB = 90 Properties of a triclinic crystal. A does not = B does not = C no 90 angles Properties of a hexagonal crystal.   a1=a2=a3 does not = C plane former […]

Lyme Disease

Bacteria Illness caused by a bacterium called a “spirochete,” which may be transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks. Certain ticks, found on deer, harbor the bacterium in their____________. Stomachs Is Lyme disease contagious from an infected person to someone else? No The unusual grouping of illness that appeared “rheumatoid” eventually led researchers to the identification of the bacterial cause of the children’s condition, what was then called ____________ in 1982? Lyme Disease Symptoms of Lyme disease:  There are 3 phases. What is phase 1? Skin inflammation There are 3 phases of Lyme disease. What is phase 2? Heart and nervous-system involvement, including palsies and meningitis. There are 3 phases of Lyme disease. What is phase 3? motor and sensory-nerve damage and brain inflammation and arthritis. Phase 1: Early localized disease Within days to weeks of the tick bite, the local ______ around the bite develops an expanding ring of flat ______. skin , redness During phase 1 […]

Living in the Environment

Cultural carrying capacity the maximum number of people who could live in reasonable freedom and comfort indefinitely, without decreasing the ability of the earth to sustain future generations.   The question we should ask instead of how many people can the earth support indefinately.    crude birth rate   crude death rate used in place of total numbers of births each year, it is the number of births per 1,000 people in a populaion in a given year. it is taken midpoint,   same concept but with dead. population change calculated by subtracting the # of people leaving a population from the # of people coming in through a certain amount of time. Drawbacks: Not enought musle gain. Populations grow or decline through interplay with births, deaths, and migration. fertility rate the number of children born to a woman during her lifetime. Two types of fertility rates affect a nation’s populations size and growth rate. replacement-level fertility rate and total […]

Living in the Environment

agroforestry Planting trees and crops together. alley cropping Planting of crops in strips with rows of trees or shrubs on each side. animal manure Dung and urine of animals used as a form of organic fertilizer. Compare green manure. aquaculture Growing and harvesting of fish and shellfish for human use in freshwater ponds, irrigation ditches, and lakes, or in cages or fenced-in areas of coastal lagoons and estuaries. See fish farming, fish ranching. chronic under nutrition An ongoing condition suffered by people who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy need. Compare malnutrition, over nutrition. commercial inorganic fertilizer Commercially prepared mixture of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields. Compare organic fertilizer. compost Partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer. conservation tillage farming Crop cultivation in which the soil is disturbed little (minimum-tillage farming) or not at […]

Lithosphere

1.Igneous Rock Rock that forms from hardened lava   Ex. Obsidian, Pumice 2. Sedimentary Rock Rocks that form from sediment being put under pressure   Ex. Limestone, Sandstone 3. Metamorphic Rock A rock that has been put under heat and pressure   Ex. Gneiss, Schist 4. Rock Cycle The CIRCLE OF LIIIIIIIFEEE, but having to do with rocks.   Ex. the formation of rocks 5. Erosion The removal of a sediment from a rock structure by water of wind means. 6. Weathering Same as erosion   Ex. Look above 7.Soil Horizons layers of soil   Always start at topsoil   Always end at bedrock 8. Continental Drift The reason why our continents look the way they do.   This is still going on in present day 9.Theory of Tectonic plates Explains how volcanoes form, how island form, and why we get earthquakes   This is one of the most useful and important theories in science 10. Abraham Ortielius first person […]

lighting quiz 4

1. The unit of electric current is: c) the ampere 2. The name given to the force driving electron flow between positive and negativeterminals is: a) voltage 3. The “ohm” is a unit of measurement for: b) resistance 4. In a series circuit, voltages and resistances are: b) added 5. In a parallel circuit, current at each load depends upon: c) the resistance of each load 6. Direct current can be defined as a condition where: d) a flow of current takes place at a constant rate in the same direction arounda circuit 7. Which of the following is not a typical use of dc power? a) high-voltage transmission lines 8. Energy is the technical term for the more common expression: b) “work” 9. The overall load factor is: c) the ratio between the average and maximum power demands of a building 10. A “ratchet” clause in a utility billing plan is disadvantageous for which type of user? b) users […]

Life Histories

why aren’t animals perfect? 1. natural selection does not require it2. there are trade offs to everything ie. giraffes height vs drinking, cheetahs speed vs rest, offspring # vs parental care life history goal to produce the largest number of SUCCESSFUL offspring-must divide energy between growth, reproduction, # of offspring, and parental care strategies 1. age at first reproduction – waiting and growing first means increased fecundity2. how often to breed – semelparous vs iteroparous3. how many offspring per episode semelparous -annual-devote more energy to growth-more offspring-less parental careie. salmon iteroparous -perennial-devote less energy to growth-less offspring-more parental careie. deer probability of adult survival/prob. of juvenile survival low = semelparoushigh = iteroparous r vs k selection r = J curve, weedy or colonists organisms small, short lives, type III, early breeding, semelparous, large clutch size, little parental care k = S curve, better competitors large, long life, late breeding, type I, iteroparous, small clutch size, lots of parental care

Lesson 8

aborigine n. An original inhabitant, especially one displaced by later settlers. abrogate v. To put an end to; to abolish or repeal. appurtenance n. An item of equipment; an accessory. bivouac n. A temporary camp or shelter.——Bivouac. V. To stay in such a camp. cetacean n. A member of the order of marine mammals that includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. decry v. to criticize strongly; to denounce. desuetude n. A state of disuse. leviathan n. Anything that is of enormous size. mawkish adj. Excessively sentimental. AND Having an unpleasant, sickly sweet taste. misapprehend v. TO fail to understand correclty parochial adj. limiting or arrow in scope or outlook. AND. Of or related to a church parish. purvey V. To be in the business of supplying goods, especially food or provisions, for use.n. purveyor recourse n. A turning to someone or something for aid. AND. A source of help or support. replete adj. Well supplied; full. waive v. To give up […]

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