diseases and substances
pandemic
worldwide epidemic
epidemiological studies
compare the health of people exposed to a particular chemical with the health of a similar group not exposed
carcinogens
chemicals that cause or promote cancer
carcinogens
chemicals that cause or promote cancer
biomagnification
predators in food chains gain a higher level of toxic chemicals in their bodies because they eat the smaller prey affected
pathogens
biological hazards
multiple chemical sensitivity
individuals sensitive to many toxins
HAA
Hormonally Active Agents
transmissible vectors
pets, livestock, wild animals, mosquitoes, food, water, air
nontransmissible disease
a disease that cannot be spread from one person to another
chronic effect
permanent consequence of exposure to a chemical
factor responsible for the largest number of premature deaths and reduced lifespans
poverty
immune system
specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and harmful substances
number of people tuberculosis kills per year worldwide
1.7 million
transmissible
can be spread from person to person
mutagens
chemicals or forms of radiation that can cause or increase the frequency of mutations in DNA
threshold dose
a determining dosage must be reached before any detectable harmful effects occur
the two biggest killers worldwide for disease
pneumonia and flu
toxic chemical
causes temporary or permanent harm and possibly death
cautionary principle
preliminary but not conclusive evidence that a chemical causes significant harm should spur preventative action
antagonistic reactions
reduce the harmful effects of chemicals
cultural hazards
smoking, poor diet, unsafe sex, drugs, working conditions, poverty
physical hazards
fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption
risk assessment
the scientific process of estimating how much harm a particular hazard can cause to human health or environment
hormesis
toxic substances that can harm or kill us may have beneficial health effects at very low doses
nervous system
consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
nonthreshold dose
any dosage of a toxic chemical causes harm that increases with dosage
oral rehydration therapy
prevents death from dehydration for victims of diarrheal diseases
metastasis
malignant cells break off from tumors and travel in body fluids to other parts of the body
synergistic interactions
multiply the harmful effects of chemicals
teratogens
chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to a fetus or embryo
germ resistance
caused by the overuse of antibiotics and development of resistant species
epidemic
large spread outbreak of an infectious disease in a specific area or country
number of people who reported having HIV in 2005 worldwide
42 million
bioaccumulation
molecules absorbed and stored in the body at higher than normal levels
ecological medicine
devoted to tracking down the connections between wildlife and humans while looking for ways to slow or prevent the spread of such diseases
endocrine system
secretes hormones and other items into the blood
acute effect
immediate harmful reaction to exposure to a chemical
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