dynamic earth!!!!

 

exhumation

 

the process involving uplife and erosion that returns deeply buried rocks to the surface

 

foliation 

 

layering formed as a consequence of the alighment of mineral grains, or of compositional banding in a metamorphic rock

 

gneiss

 

a compositionally banded metamorphic rock typically composed of alternating dark and light colored layers

 

marble

 

a metamorphic rock composed of calcite and transformed from a protolith of limestone

 

metamorphic grade

 

The intensity or rank of metamorphism, measured by the amount or degree of difference between the original parent rock and the metamorphic rock. It indicates in a general way the pressure-temperature environment or facies in which the metamorphism took place

 

metamorphic rock

 

rock that forms when existing rock changes into new rock as a result of an increase in pressure and temperature and or shearing under elebated termperature

-metmorphism occurs without the rock first becoming a melt or a sediment 

 

metamorphism 

 

the process by which one kind of rock transforms into a different kind of rock

 

protolith 

 

the original from which a metamorphic rock formed

 

schist 

 

a medium to coarse grained metamorphic rock that possesses schistosity 

 

slate

 

fine grained, low grade metamorphic rock formed by metamophism of shale

 

aftershock 

 

the series of smaller earthquakes that follow a major earthquake

 

displacement slip

 

the amount of movement or slip across a fault plane

 

earthquake

 

a vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional slifing of rock in the earth

 

epicenter

 

the point on the surgace of the earth directly aboe the focus of an earthquake

 

fault

 

a fracture on which one body of rock slides past another

 

fault scarp

 

a smell step in the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other

 

friction 

 

resistance to sliding on a surface

 

hypocenter

 

the point of an earthquak beneath the surface

 

intensity 

 

a measure of the relative size of an earthquake at a location, as determined by examining the amount of damage caused

 

magnitude

 

the size of the earthquake

 

recurrence interval 

 

the average time between successive geologic events

 

seismograph

 

the record of an earthquake

 

p-waves

compression

 

compressional seismic waves that move through the body of the earth

 

s-waves 

shear

 

seismic shear waves that pass through the body of the earth

 

stick-slip 

 

a fault in which one block slides horizontally past another so there is no realtive vertical motion

 

stress

 

the push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subejcted to a force

 

surface waves

 

seismic waves that travel along the earth’s surface

 

tsunami 

 

a large wave along the sea surface triggered by an earthquak or large submarine slump

 

anticline

 

a fold with an arch-like shape in which the limbs dip away from the hinge

 

brittle 

 

the cracking and fracturing of a material subjected to stress

 

deformation 

 

a change in the shampe, position, or orientation of a material by bending, breaking, or flowing

 

dip

 

a fault in which sliding occurs up or down the slope 

 

ductile 

 

the bending and flowing of a material without cracking and breaking subjected to stress

 

footwall 

 

he rocks on the lower side of an inclined fault plane

 

hanging wall 

 

the rock or sediment above an inclined fault plane

 

isostasy 

 

the condition that exists when the buotancy force pushing lithosphere up equals the gravitational force pulling lithosphere down

 

joint 

 

naturally formed cracks in rocks

 

syncline   

 

a trough shaped fold whose limbs dip toward the hinge

 

normal fault 

 

 

a fauly in which the hanging wall block moves down the slope of the fault

 

reverse fault 

 

a steeply dipping fault on which the hanging wall block slides up

 

transform fault

a fault marking a transform plate boundary

-along mid ocean ridges, are actively slipping segment of a fracture zone between two ridge segments

 

uplift

 

Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic

 

abyssal plane 

 

a broad relatively flat region of ocean that lies at least 4.5 km below sea level

 

active margin 

 

a continental margine that coincides with a plate boundary

 

bathymetry 

 

variation in depth 

 

continental shelf 

 

a broad, shallowly submerged fringe of a continent 

-the widest continental shelves occur over passive margins

 

coriolis effect 

 

the deflection of objectsm winds, and currents on the surface of the earth owing to the planet’s rotation 

 

gyre 

 

a large circular flow pattern of ocean surface currents 

 

passive continental margin 

 

a continental margin that is not a plate boundary 

 

thermohaline circulation 

 

the rising and sinking of water driven by contrasts in water ensity, which is due in turn to differences in temp and salinity

-circulation involved both surface and deep water currents

 

andiabatic cooling 

 

the process of reducing heat through a change in air pressure caused by volume expansion

 

adiabatic heating

 

 A change in the temperature of a material without addition of heat that happens when the pressure of a gas is increased.

 

air

 

the mixture of gases that make up the earth’s atmosphere

 

air pressure 

 

the push that air exerts on its surroundings

 

atmosphere

 

a layer of gases that surrounds a planet

 

climate

 

the average weather conditions along with the range of conditions of a region over a year

 

cloud 

 

a mist of tiny water droplets in the sky

 

convergence zone

 

a place where two surface air flows meet so that air has to rise

 

divergence zone 

 

a place where sinking air separates into two flows that move in opposite directions

 

dewpoint temperature 

 

the temp at which air becomes satuared so that dew can form 

 

el nino 

 

the flow of warm water eastward form the pacific ocean that reverses the upselling of cold water along the western coast of south america and causes significant global changes in weather patterns

 

hadley cell 

 

the name given to the low altitude convection cells in the atmosphere

 

insolation 

 

exposure to the sun’s rays

 

jet stream 

 

a fast moving current of air that flowa at high elevation 

 

mesosphere 

 

the cooler layer of atmosphere overlying the stratosphere

 

ozone

o3

-protects

-absorbs ultraviolet

 

stratosphere 

 

the stable stratified layer of atmosphere directly above the troposphere

 

thermosphere 

 

the outermost layer of the atmopshere conaining very little gas

 

trade winds

 

a wind blowing steadily toward the equator from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere, esp. at sea

 

troposphere

 

the lowest layer of the atmosphere where air undergoes convection and where most wind and clouds develop

 

weather 

 

local scale conditions as defined by temperature air pressure relative humidity and wind speed

 

wind

 

natural movement of the air, esp. in the form of a current of air blowing from a particular direction.

 

typical p wave velocities in crust

 

1,000km / 1 min

 

typical s wave velocity in crust

 

400 km / 1 min

 

major ions in sea water

 

magnesium

calicum

potassium

 

 

salinity of ocean water

-more saline as temp increases

 

typical depth of abyssal plains

 

4.5 km

 

average insolation

 

depends on the angle at which sunbeams strike the earth

-poles are cooler

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