Earth Environmental Science 1
What is the main force acting on landslides?
Gravity
What is the main cause of La Conchita landslide in 2005?
Excessive rainfall
What are direct costs in a landslide?
Direct costs are any damage to property.
What are indirect costs in a landslide?
Indirect costs are loss of torus, cattle destroyed, death of people, etc. (anything else)
What prevents debris from moving?
Internal friction.
What can trigger a landslide?* (3 only)
Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, obsessive rainfall, rapid snow melt, oversteeping of slope, lack of vegetation, loading head or cutting toe, can occur without triggers too.
How does construction destabilize a slope?
Loading the head and cutting the toe.
What are the types of load carried by a stream?*
Bed load, suspended load, dissolve load
What is stream discharge?
Amount of water flowing past a point in a given time, i.e. cfs
Define stream competence.
Maximum size particle that a stream can carry. (gravel, sand, bolder, etc.)
Define stream capacity.
How much sediment the stream can carry.
Define saltation.
The bouncing and rolling of sediment along the stream bottom.
Define confined aquifer.
Has impermeable layers at the top and the bottom.
Define unconfined aquifer
Impermeable layer at the bottom.
How much of the surface of Earth is covered by water?
70%
How is velocity distributed in a river? I.e. where is it fastest?
Fastest on the outside meandering and gets slower in the inside.
How does a braided stream differ from a meandering stream?
Braided stream has a high amount of sediments and very little clay. Meandering has one single channel and has enough clay to create levis.
What is the thalweg of a stream?
Where the water is moving the fastest. (in the middle)
What is a drainage basin?
Total area drained by a stream.
What are the types of drainage patterns?
Radical, dendritic, and rectangular.
What is the saturated zone?
Where every pore space is filled with water.
What types of rocks make good aquifers?
Sandstone, conglomerate, unconsolidated alluvium
What are some of the factors that control stream velocity?
Channel shape, channel smoothness, gradient/slope, and discharge.
What is the difference between porosity and permeability?
Porosity = the percentage of pore space.
Permeability = a rocks ability to transmit fluid.
How do you calculate the discharge of a stream?
Q = A x V (area x velocity)
What is an oxbow lake?
Result of a cutoff meander bend.
What is the difference between the inside deposition and the outside erosion of a meander bend?
Inside deposition takes place where the slow water is because not enough.
Erosion is where water is faster.
What river has the largest discharge on Earth?
Amazon river
What river has the largest discharge in the U.S.?
Mississippi river
How is fresh water distributed on Earth?
Most of fresh water is frozen, the one that is unfrozen is in ground water.
What is hydraulic head? How does it apply to groundwater?
Vertical discharge between the recharge area and the well
What is the zone of saturation? What is the zone of aeration?
Zone of saturation = where every pore space is filled with water.
Zone of aeration = pore space are filled with water and air.
What soils/sediments have the best infiltration capacities?
Sand and gravel have really good infiltration capacities, but clay does not.
How is water stored in granite?
In fractures.
What causes sink holes?
Dissolution of carbonate rock creates a cavity that caves in acidic water.
What is a spring? What is an oasis?
Spring is where ground water intersects the land surface.
Oasis is pretty much the same, but in a desert area.
What caused the flooding of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?
The Mississippi river, the levi broke
How does the water in the LA Aqueduct get from the Owens Valley to Los Angeles? What are the pumping requirements?
All gravity fed, no pump on it.
What is the difference between an aquitard and an aquiclude?
Aquitard = slows the flow
Aquiclude = excludes flow
What causes geysers?
Super-heating of groundwater, flashes to stream (water is super-heated quickly and flashes to a stream, so it goes up)
What are the primary pollutants in groundwater?
Sewage, petroleum, nitrate.
What is subsidence? What causes it to occur?
Subsidence happens when the land surface sinks; it is due to over pumping.
What is a cone depression? What can cause a cone depression?
Cone of depression is when you draw down the water and cause other wells to dry. Caused do to over pumping.
What is the difference between a gaining and a losing stream?
Gaining stream is lower from the ground water table, so it gains more water.
Low stream is higher from the ground water table, so it loses stream from the ground water.
What is the main use of water in California?
Agriculture
Know the water cycle. What powers the water cycle?
The sun powers the water cycle.
Why are children in some developing countries dying from water poisoning?
Because of unsanitary water.
Why is the study of hydrology (especially groundwater) so important?
Because in the valley we need it for agriculture and we can’t live without drinking water.
Knowledge on water helps us reserve water.
What is artesian flow? How is it accomplished?
Artesian flow is natural flow of water. Accomplished through confined aquifer.
Why are gas stations around the valley and elsewhere being torn up and rebuilt?
Because of liking underground storage tanks, lust
What was Mulholland’s education level?
Grade school
Who was the biologist who lead the fight to save Mono Lake?
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