Earth Science FIrst Semster Final Review
What would an astronomer most likely study?
Comet, stars, sky etc.
What does the ozone layer in the atmosphere shield the earth from?
Ultraviolet rays
What is a part of the Earths biosphere?
Oceans, atmosphere, land etc.
What is the largest ecosystem called?
Biosphere
What is important to gathering and or collecting information?
Measuring
A possible explanation to a problem?
Hypothesis
The first step in using a scientific methods to solve a problem?
State what the problem is
A hypothesis or set of hypothesis supported by the result of experimentation and obsevation is called a(n) fact.
 A Theory
A well-established and proven theory is most likely to become.
Law

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As an observer toward sources X and Y in the diagram above, light from the two sources will appear to become?

Blue Toward

 

 

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Look at the digram above. One wavelength is equal to the distance between points.

1-3 or 3-4
A spectroscope is most likely to be used to determine a star’s
Chemical make up
The red shift observed in a distant galaxy’s spectra is evidence for the?
Big bang, expansion of galaxies
The lithosphere is made up of the upper mantle and the?
Crust
The earth’s atmosphere is made up of mostly oxygen;and?
Nitrogen
S waves are most easily blocked by the earth’s
the outer core
Because certain seismic waves are not detected in shadow zones, it us hypothesized that the earth’s interior is?
Partially liquid
Where do most seismic waves come from?
Earthquakes and explosions
The boundary the earth’s crust and mantle where the speed of seismic waves changes is called the?
Moho
What best describes the magnetosphere?
The region of space affected by earths moho
What is most likely to result from an incease in the earth’s rotation rate?
Decrease the length of a day
In which month does the earth reach the winter solstice?
December
when the earth is at the farthest point in its orbit from the sun, it is said to be at?
Aphelion
when the south pole tilts toward the sun, the Northern Hemisphere experiences what?
Winter
There are 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness south of the Antarctic Circle on the day?
vernal equinox

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According to the diagram above, what is the correct time in Denver when it is noon in Boston?

10 am
Approximately how many degrees of the earth’s total circumference does each time zone cover?
15 degrees
A satellite that passes over a different portion of the earth during each revolution is traveling?
Polar orbit
Navigation satellites aree used to?
navigate ships
Landsat satellites are most frequently used to?
Earth features, communications.
Satellites in geosynchronous orbits are most often used for?
communication
A star in category G in the table above would most likely be?
yellow orange
An apparent shift in the wavelength of light emitted by a light source moving toward or away from an observer is known as?
doppler effect
A star moving toward the earth would display a?
blue
How far is the sun from the earth?
8.32 minutes

 

in which region of the diagram does the sun lie?

b
What type of star is generally located in region A of this Hertzsprung-Russell diagram?
White dwarf

A star with which of the following apparent magnitudes would appear brightest?

12, 8, 0, -5

-5
What stage of stellar evolution is the sun experiencing at this time?
Main sequence
A main sequence star maintains a stable size as long as it has an ample supply of hydrogen to fuse into?
Helium

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What stage in the life of a star 10 times more massive than the sun is missing in this chart?

red giant
Large-scale groups of stars bound together by gravitational attraction are known as?
Galaxies
The transfer of energy in moving liquids and gasses occurs by the process called?
Convection
Which layer of the sun gives off the visible light normally seen from the earth?
Photosphere
Ions that stream out into space through holes in the corona create?
Solar wind
The layer that prevents most of the atomic particles from the sun’s surface from escaping into the space is the?
Corona
Cooler regions of the photosphere near strong magnetic fields are called?
sun spots
The most violent of all solar disturbances is called a?
Solar Flare
Auroras are an effect caused by?
magnetic storms
What planets are gas giant?
Uranis, Jupiter, Satun, Neptune
Which planet consits of water and frozen gases?
Saturn
The small bodies of matter that were present in the solar nebula while the sun was forming are called?
Planetesimals

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In the diagram above the light from source x compared source y appears to be what?

Red
What makes up the earths athenosphere?
solid rock that is able to flow
What percent of earths hydrosphere is made up of salt?
97%
What zone of the earth is made up of liquid iron?
the outer core
The process of photosynthesis increases the amount of which gas in the earth;s atmosphere?
Oxygen
What shields the earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation of the sun?
Ozone layer
The presence of a magnetic field indicates that a planet has what?
Iron Core
The tendency of an object to remain at rest until acted upon by an outside force is called what?
Inertia
The planets are kept in orbit by the sun;s what?
Gravity
The terrestrial planets are composed mostly of what?
solid rock
What is a terrestrial planet?
Mars, Earth, Mercury, Venus
What are the gas giant planets?
Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, Saturn

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what is the 7th planet?

Uranus
What is a body that orbits a larger body?
Satellite
What are bowl-shaped lunar depressions called?
crater
As the moon rotates, why does one side of the moon always faces the earth?
it revolves and rotates at the same time.
What will occur if the moon crosses the plane of the earth;s orbit when the moon is between the earth and the sun?
solar eclipse
What type of eclipse is seen by the most people?
Lunar

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According to the diagram above, observers on the earth see a full moon when the moon is in position

According to the diagram above, observers on the earth see a full moon when the moon is in position 3

;

Approximately how many elements occur naturally in the earth?
90
What is a substance that is formed from atoms with a characteristic set of physical and chemical properties called?
element
Each element consists of one basic kind of what?
atoms
The smallest unit of an element that has all the basic properties of the element is called a what?
Atom
Different elements are made up of different kinds of what?
Atoms
Which of the subatomic particles has no positive or negative charge?
Neutron
The region at the center of the atom is called the what?
Nucleus
Protons and neutrons of an atom are located in the what?
Nucleus
Which subatomic particle always has a negative charge?
electron

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According to the table above, what is the mass number of the element fluorine (F)?

19.00

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;

According to the table above, how many neutrons are in one atom of the element fluorine (F)?

10

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According to the table above, how many electrons does the element silver (Ag) have?

47
The isotopes of an element have a different number of what?
Neutrons

Which of the following has the most loosely packed atoms?

steam, ice, water, rock

steam
What is the maximum number of electrons an element with two energy levels can have?
10
An atom that carries an electrical charge is called what?
Ion
In a covalent bond, the nucleus of each atom is attracted to the what?
Electrons that are shared
What is shared between atoms in a covalent bond?
Electrons
How many atoms of potassium (K) are represented by the formula K2SO4?
2
What is an example of a mineral?
Quartz, Mica, hornblend, magnatite, etc
;Which mineral is white in powdered form?[image]
Garnet
The heft or relative weight of a mineral sample is directly related to the mineral;s what?
Density

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According to the table, what is the approximate hardness of a mineral that scratches quartz and can be scratched by topaz?

7.5
A mineral that splits into even sheets shows which of the properties?
Cleavage
A mineral in which all atoms are bonded tightly together will most likely be what?
hard
The most common magnetic mineral is what?
magnetite
The ability of a mineral to glow during; exposure to ultraviolet light is called what?
phosphorescence
In which phase is the moon when the unlighted side faces the earth?
New
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