Earth Science Lab Final
Meter
The base unit for length in the metric system
Crystal habit is a reflection of the _____ of the mineral.
Atomic structure
Luster
The way in which a mineral reflects light
Cleavage
The way in which a mineral breaks along weak bonds
Lithification
The process by which sediments are compacted and cemented to for rock
Metamorphism
The process by which rocks are altered by heat, pressure and/or fluids.
Why is a sedimentary rock classified as a conglomerate?
The grains are rounded and gravel size or larger
An example of isotopes used in absolute dating would be Carbon-14 decays to what?
Nitrogen-14
How much of the parent isotope decays into the daughter isotope in absolute dating?
1/2
Radiometric dating works well with ____ rocks because they often contain the isotope pairs needed for the process and have not been altered
Igneous
The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into….
Eastern and Western Hemispheres
Triangulation
The method of using three seismograph stations to locate the epicenter
Magnetic Declination
The angular difference between true north and magnetic north and changes with time
Moh’s Hardness Scale
Has ten levels of hardness
Crystal size in igneous rock is controlled primarily by
Cooling Rate
Sandstone
The parent rock of the metamorphosed rock quartzite
Detrital
The sedimentary rocks that consist of particles broken off of preexisting rocks
Calcite
The main mineral composition of marble
Gneiss
Has the highest grade of metamorphism compared to Phyllite, Slate, and Schist
Limestone
Considered a detrital sedimentary rock
UTM coordinate systems
Repeat in every zone
Felsic compositon
Lighter colors: pinks and browns
Mafic composition
Darker colors: black and green
Ways to identify a mineral
Smell, luster, cleavage
Law of Superposition
The older layers are below the newer layers
Law of cross-cutting relationships
A layer must first exist before anything can intrude in it
Law of Faunel Succession
Fossils in older layers of sediment existed before those in newer layers
Latitude vs. Longitude
NS vs. EW
Angular Unconformity
sed. Rock rest on the eroded surface of tilted or folded older rocks
Non-conformity
sed. Rocks lie on an erosion surface cut into igneous or metamorphic rocks
Waves are primarily a movement of what?
Energy
23.5 degrees
The tilt of the earth’s axis
June 21st
Summer solstice
90 degrees
The maximum number of degrees North Latitude possible
Topographic Maps
Depict 3D landforms with a series of contour lines connecting points of equal elevation
Number of time zones
24
Time zones are located
every 15 degrees of longitude
December 21st
Summer in South America
March 21st
Vernal equinox
Astronomical Unit
Distance from the sun to the earth
Neptune
Jovian Planet
Venus
Terrestrial Planet
Solar Winds
Streams of high velocity radiation, light and charged particles
Cumulo form
Clouds that look like large, fluffy stacks of cotton balls
Occluded Front
When a fast moving cold front catches up with a warm front
Albedo
Considered the reflectivity of a material
Vapor Pressure is expressed in what?
Milibars
Steam Devils
Swirling columns of fog in a think fog bank
Front
The transition zone between two different air masses
Neap tide
Lower tide
Spring tide
Higher tide
Aphanetic Texture
Small crystals
Phaneritic Texture
Large crystals
Pegmatic
a form of igneous rock consisting of extremely coarse granite resulting from the crystallization of magma rich in rare element
Clastic
the type of sedimentary rock, like sandstone and shale, that is formed from fragments of other rocks
Focus
the location on the fault where the earthquake begins
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