Earth Science Mineral Review
What is a mineral??
Naturally occuring, inorganic, christiline solid containing a definite checmical composition.
Best way to indentify minerals?
Through use of x-rays to view chrystal structure.
Best mineral properties for identification.
acid reaction, magnetism, luster, streak, hardness (Mohs scale), cleavage, crystal structure
All minerals are rocks, but not all rocks are minerals. Some rocks are only 1 mineral.
Fracture
uneven breaking surfaces due to uniform strength
Cleavage
minerals that contain weakness where a it is most likely to break forming smooth, parellel surfaces
Most common minerals in Earth’s crust.
Olovine
Plagioclase-feldspar
Quartz
Pyroxene
Amphibole
Mica
Clay
Potassium-feldspar
Streak
color of finely crushed residue or powder of a mineral. may differ from mineral’s color
Luster
the way a mineral appears in reflective light; metallic or non-metallic
hardness
Mohs Scale 1-10. resistance to a mineral being scratched
density
mass/volume
color
the pigmentation of a mineral that can be changed – NOT a good indicator
Mineral Crystal Structure
Atomic arrangment of the atoms, most minerals are silicate minerals.
Silicate Minerals
structure resulting from four-sided units of Silcan and Oxygen (Sicate and Oxygen Tetrahedria
[image]
Oxygen-Silcan Tetrahedra
Sedimentary
formed by the deposition of material at the Earth’s surface and within bodies of water
Metamorphic
arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means “change in form”.
Indiginous
Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization
Mineral Formation
Inorganic Crystalization
Organization of atoms to form crystalined solids.
Mineral Formation
Recrystillizaton
recrystillzation of atoms from the solids, liquids and gases associated w/ various rock forming enviornments
Inorganic
Not made by; or composed of life forms
Why is a mineral considered crystilined
Its atoms are of a certain arrrangment called the crystal structure
All minerals are….
Solids that are composed of one or more chemical elements
Mineral crystal structures are responsible for…..
many of the chemical and physical properties
Single tetrahedrin
ex. Olivine (curved stature)
chains of tetrahedra
ex. Pyroxene (2 directions of cleavage into blocky of splintered shaped fractures)
Sheets of tetrahedra
ex. Mica (one direction of cleavage into sheets and fracture)
A network of tetrahedra in three dimensions
ex. Quartz
Crystal shape
outward geometric shape of a mineral reflecting the crystal structure
Minerals are indentified on the basis of….
physical properties
chemical properties
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