Earth Science Semester 1 Final Study Guide JCS MHSA
Magma is a slushy mix of molten rock, gases, and_
Mineral Crystals
Porphyritic textures indicate that magma has cooled ___ Throughout crystallization
slowly then quickly
Different minerals melt and crystallize at __
Different Temperatures
Igneous rocks can be identified by their __ of crystal size and texture
Physical properties
The sun shines on and warms Earth’s surface directly in a method of energy known as __
Radiation
Imbalances in Earth’s __ help to create weather.
heat energy
Due to the __ Moving air particles are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left of the southern hemisphere
Coriolis effect
The greenhouse effect is the natural __ of Earth’s surface caused by certain gases in the atmosphere
Heating
One of the effects of El Nino is that the jet stream shifts farther __
South
Roughly half of all Earth’s seawater is contained in the __ Ocean
Pacific
Nitrogen is one of the dissolved __ in seawater
gases
Melting sea ice __ the salinity of seawater in polar regions
lowers
Breakers are formed by the action of __ between the wave and the ocean bottom
Friction
The depth to which a disturbs the water is called the __
Wave base
As marine organisms die, their solid parts drift to the bottom of the ocean, causing salts to be __ seawater
Removed from
The freezing point of salt water is somewhat __ than that of freshwater.
lower
Closed, circular surface currents systems are called __
Gyres
Upwelling waters bring __ to the ocean’s surface
nutrients
A combination of many __ makes up Earth’s atmosphere
Gases
If the amount of moisture in the air remains the same and temperature rises, the relative humidity will __
Decrease
The amount of water vapor in a given volume of air is it __
Humidity
As the water content of rocks increases, the melting point __
Decreases
A model that illustrates the predictable patterns of mineral formation from cooling magma is __
Mineral composition
Intrusive igneous rocks form __
coarse-grained rocks
Rocks are formed when magma __
crystallizes
Igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s crust are __
intrusive
Igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface are __
Extrusive
Extrusive rocks, which cool more rapidly than intrusive rocks, are generally more __
Finely grained
Factors that affect a rock’s melting point include __
Pressure and water content
Valuable ore deposits and gem crystals are often associated with __
Igneous intrusions
Current short-term variations in the atmosphere are referred to as __
Weather
The Coriolis effect is die to the __ of Earth
Rotation
Polar and tropical regions maintain fairly constant average temperatures because __
the continual motion of air and water reallocates heat energy throughout Earth
Types of climate data include annual variations in temperature, precipitation and __
wind
The climatic zone that receives the least solar radiation and has the coldest climate is the
polar zone
Earth’s atmosphere contains more __ than any other substance.
Nitrogen and oxygen
When the temperature in the atmosphere reaches the __ condensation occurs
Dew point
What is the constant movement of water between the atmosphere and Earth’s Surface?
The Water cycle
Rock formed from the crystallization if magma us called __
igneous rock
__ illustrates the relationship between cooling magma and mineral formation.
Bowens reaction series
A rock that has grains of two different sizes has __ texture
Porphyritic
A(n) ___ is a vein of extremely large-grained minerals.
pegmatite
What is the transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves?
Radiation
What is the temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation?
Dew point
What is the gas formed by adding a third oxygen atom to an oxygen molecule?
Ozone
What is Maritime polar (northern Pacific, Bering Sea)?
Cold and humid
What is maritime tropical (Gulf of Mexico)?
warm and humid
What is Continental Tropical (southwestern desert of the United States)?
Warm and Dry
What is Continental polar (central Canada)
Cold and Dry
What is the study of Earth’s climate and the factors that affect past, present, and future climate changes?
Climatology
What is the current caused by wind?
Surface current
What is a collapsing wave?
A breaker
What is the lowest point of a wave?
Trough
What is the current caused by differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water?
Density Current
What is the Highest point of a wave?
Crest
What is Upward motion of ocean water?
Upwelling
What is the rhythmic movement that carries energy through matter?
Waves
What is the layer between the stratosphere and the thermosphere?
Mesosphere
What is the layer in which the most pollution occurs?
Troposphere
What is the atmosphere’s outermost layer?
Exosphere
What is the layer within the thermosphere filled with electrically charged particles?
Ionosphere
What is the part of the atmosphere containing the ozone layer?
Stratosphere
What part of the atmosphere can have air temperatures up to 1000 C?
The Thermosphere
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