Why are small populations more threatened with extinction?

Because they are below the critical population density and they are more vulnerable by catastrophic events and bigger populations can survive better with a well-connected metapopulation
What should the two main aims of conservation be? Explain your reasoning.

They should be to preserve ecosystem processes. While many human activities fight against nature, conservation efforts should focus on maintain energy flow, nutrient cycling, waste breakdown, and physical environmental conditions. Also, it is important to maintain genetic diversity because it can provide future human benefits and can maintain the viability and resilience of species in the future.
If an area of an uncommon type of vegetation is reduced to small separated patches, how will this affect the population of animals living there? Would there be a difference in the reaction of the animals if that patch was a more common type of vegetation? How?

Population fragmentation can occur, or a population can be completely isolated. Can often cause extinction of population.
What features of animal life control the amount of space they need to survive? Describe two. Why can an animal the size of a raccoon survive so well in a city? Do humans change the amount of space animals need to survive? How?

They need cover, food and water for nourishment, and space to obtain food, water, and attract a mate. Raccoons are not picky and adapt well to new surroundings. They are omnivores, so they eat everything and can raid garbage cans and dumps and live under storage drains for cover. Yes because when we change the environment, wildlife is affected. For example if a certain type of tree is removed by a homeowner, some populations could be negatively affected, but others could increase.
Some ecologists think that habitat corridors are very important and some think that animals can function just as well without them. As usual, both of these opinions are likely true. Explain how both can be true at the same time.

Habitat corridor is a strip of land that aids in the movement of species between disconnected areas of their natural habitat. Urbanization can lead to this. Some animal species are much more apt to use a habitat corridors than others, depending on on their migration patterns. But deer for example are not migratory so it is not necessary. It also depends on the distance between the habitat patches and the quality of the corridor.
Can humans alter conditions in such a way as to promote high diversity? How would you achieve this aim?

Yes, first the way we dispose of waste is very important. Chemicals such as cleaners or fertilizers have negate effects on biodiversity, so limiting the use and practicing safe disposal of these is important. Also, activities such as overfishing have had negative effects on wildlife. Limiting this can also promote high diversity.
Why can some species not survive in habitat patches smaller than a certain size? Describe two examples of species that fit this category.

They need cover, food and water for nourishment, and space to obtain food, water, and attract a mate. Bears need a lot of space to hunt and find food, and so do manatees.
Is the ability to migrate between habitat patches important? Can corridors promote migration? What features make corridors effective? Is this different for different users of the corridor?

Yes, if an animal cannot migrate between the habitat patches then they might not survive. A corridor can promote this migration, but they must be high quality corridor and they cannot be too far apart.
Describe the creation from the beginning through the present of the Shenandoah National Park. Be complete.

Land purchased for forest service in 1911
Describe how the Endangered Species Act works and what is contained within the document.

It’s the most powerful wildlife conservation and protection law. The ESA is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It designates a species as in danger of extinctions. When a foreign species is listed as endangered, protection under the ESA occurs by prohibiting imports unless they enhance the propagation or survival of the species or are for scientific purposes. It protects 1300 species.
A species whose role is absolutely vital for the survival of many other species in an ecosystem is called a(n) ____________________ species.
The single largest reason for the current decline in biodiversity is 
alteration of habitats
The value of a natural species may be
a. recreational and aesthetic.
b. as a source for medicine.
c. as a source for agriculture.
d. commercial.
The peregrine falcon was driven to extremely low numbers because of
What is an exotic species?
A species introduced to an area from some other place.

Which species were driven to extinction by human activities
Steller’s sea cow, passenger pigeons, dodos

Small populations of species are more likely to


a. be below critical population density.
b. be vulnerable to stochastic processes.
c. be more likely to survive in a well-connected metapopulation.

 The California condor and whooping crane are
endangered species
what would make a species NOT more prone to extinction
small body size
The ecosystem service least likely to be provided by wild vertebrate species is
moderating earths climate



In a typical forest, animals all live in the same levels of the canopy and eat the same food. This brings about niche specialization.

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed in
The ESA(endangered species act) was designed to preserve the
esthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.
what species were already extinct by the time the ESA was passed?
Steller’s sea cow and the Carolina parakeet
The ESA is administered by
b. FWS
One thing the ESA requires is that all listed species have
a recovery plan
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was passed in
The MMPA was originally designed to
protect stocks, keep stocks from falling below OSP, replenish stocks, increase knowledge of stocks and to protect resources of great international significance.
The IUCN maintains
the red lists
The purpose of the IUCN is to
tackle climate change, achieve sustainable energy, improve human well-being and build a green economy.
The strengths of the IUCN revolve around
science, action and influence.
The Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) is an international treaty enacted in
The CITES treaty encompassed the
three Appendices (I, II and III).
Write the definition of Human Wildlife Conflicts that you think best summarizes the idea. Defend your idea as the BEST answer based on what you learned in class.
Human Wildlife conflicts are any interactions between humans and animals, that results in negative impacts on human life, or on the wildlife. Mostly an issue in urban areas or in areas that are near wildlife preserves.
Describe at least five reasons why Human wildlife Conflicts occurs.
Growing human population
Land Use Transformation
Habitat Loss
Climatic Factors
Describe the complete problems and solutions associated with one of the animals we discussed in class.
Elephants: Over 80% of their range is outside of protected areas. Elephants raid crops eating and trampling the food people are growing, causing the conflict. One way to control the elephants without causing them harm is grow chili peppers around the edge of your field as elephants cannot eat chili peppers.
Even though most HWC surrounds terrestrial animals, there is a great deal of conflict between manatees and certain groups of humans in Florida. Make a case to defend the manatees and the case one of the human groups would make to remove the manatees. Be sure to comment on which side you think is more correct. I will not be biased. So choose the side you most associate with.
Manatees were in the waterways first, and not doing anything that harms humans or their way life, so their lands should be protected so they are safe, while at the same time allowing for some development along the water, but finding a way to minimize boat traffic.
The manatees are causing humans to lose precious and valuable real estate that could be sold for a large sum. We should move the manatees away from human developed areas and find a way to keep them out of the streams.
I think that protecting the manatees is important because they have no voice to stand up and protect themselves from our encroachment. There are many other shorelines that people can move too, but not many places that have the perfect salinity content for the Manatee to surivive.
What can be done to accommodate both the elephants in Africa and the humans struggling to survive there? State and defend three ideas.
They can plant chili peppers around their fields to deter elephants from entering the field because they cannot tolerate chili.
Using Beehives as a fencing system, since elephants are afraid of bees, which will deter them from entering the field.
Banger sticks, where the people go out and bang sticks together, it only works when elephants are approaching, because once you stop banging the sticks, the elephants will come back, not a long term solution.
We covered only a few of the animals that are in conflict with humans. What other animals are involved in HWC? Describe the biology and the conflict surrounding your animal.
Deer are in a huge conflict with humans, they often live in small forested areas alongside housing developments, so they can have areas to feed off of, and the woods to hide in. This causes a problem when the deer run across roads and get hit by cars, sometimes injuring people. 
HWC is escalating worldwide because of


b. land use transformation
c. habitat loss, degradation, fragmentation.

When working on problems of HWC, it is important to
consider an interdisciplinary approach to conflict that incorporate as much information
as possible about the animals, but also takes into account the human dimension.
The best strategy to control elephants in Africa is
 fence the area with something elephants do not like, chili peppers for instance.
What is the biggest problem with cormorants in Israel?
They eat commercially important fish.
Coyotes have been present in __________________ since ___________________.
Rock Creek Park, 2004
Coyotes are important in the Washington D.C. ecosystem because
they are top carnivores and keep some pest animals under control.
Manatees evolved from __________________ animals ______ years ago.
four, 60 million 
Steller’s sea cows were found on two islands in the north Pacific in ________ by Georg Steller and they were hunted to extinction by Russian fur hunters by ________.
1741, 1768
Sirenians, in general, are very unusual in many ways. One of the most strange is
they have axillary (under arm) nipples.
The largest threat to manatees in Florida is
Cold stress is very bad for manatees because
a. Causes weight loss, skin lesions, gastrointestinal disorders, internal abscesses and
secondary infections.
b. It is little understood.
c. Some animals suffer a mild version after severe weather.
d. It is worse for smaller, younger and less experienced animals.
Manatees in Florida are protected by
a. Florida State law (Ch. 4208.94) (1893)
b. Endangered Species Act (1973)
c. Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)
Are predators important to the ecosystem? If so, why? If not, why not?
Yes, they limit the population and this is good because pathogens spread more in big populations. Predators balance out the ecosystems.
Describe a typical predator-prey relationship. Draw a graph showing this type of relationship between a rabbit and a lynx. Is this what actually happens between these organisms? Why or why not?
The primary productivity or “bottom up” hypothesis suggests that plant growth is limited by the energy available to plants which is determined in turn by temperature and precipitation. Additional plant growth means more forage is available–thus herbivores, and ultimately carnivores, should increase in abundance. (Predator related)
Alternatively, the trophic cascade or “top down” model predicts that changes in one trophic level are caused by opposite changes in the trophic level immediately above it. For example, a decrease in moose abundance should produce increased plant growth if moose herbivory limits plant growth. Changes in primary productivity would only have a discernible effect on vegetation if higher level interactions had been removed. Food and weather related
Describe the history of predator management in the US.
Predators were competitors with humans for game, they were a threat to human safety and threat to the health of the livestock. Predator control was the earliest of wildlife management in the United States
Describe predator management strategies for coyotes, cougars, wolves or bears in the US (choose one). What policy do wildlife managers usually have for management of predators in reserves?
? To restore and perpetuate the natural distribution, ecology, and behavior of black bears free of human influences.
? Objectives:
? Eliminate human food sources and dangerous human activities.
? Minimize human/bear interactions.
? Educate visitors.
? Make sure human food is in bear proof containers, Do not approach bears!, Allow bears to roam free…
1931: Animal Damage Control Act authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to: “promulgate the best methods of eradication [and] suppression [of] mountain lions, wolves, coyotes, bobcats, prairie dogs, [and] gophers…for the protection of stock and other domestic animals…and to conduct campaigns for the destruction or control of such animals
Usually when ecologists talk about predators, they mean large mammals. Are there other kinds of predators that need to be controlled? Think about this one. State and explain your opinion.
Insects and parasites are usually very small but they need to be controlled because they can have detrimental effects on the ecosystem.

 _____ populations are at least partially determined by their food supplies, not just their ____.


prey, predator
____ populations respond to the entire community of ____, not just a single species.
 prey, predator
 ____ populations are affected by factors other than just the ____ population density.
predator, prey



Saving predators is really a bad idea since they provide no helpful effect to the environment.

Opinions about predators stem from European settlers. They thought predators were

a. competitors with humans for game.

                                   b. threats to human safety.
c. threats to the health of livestock.

                                        d. werewolves.

In 1931 the Animal Damage Control Act authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to ___ predators. (Remember this is law, you must use the exact wording.)
The Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act was passed in
The main action of the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act was to create
a tax on hunting equipment.
By January 2010, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act had raised _______ dollars.
2 billion
 Bounties on predators go back to _____ in _______ to control _____.
1630, Massachusetts, wolves
Bounties cost the state of North Dakota ____ dollars between 1897 and 1961.
2.2 mllion
Until 1961, North Dakota had bounties on
wolf, rattlesnake, magpie, gopher, fox and coyote.



Bounties succeed in reducing predator populations on a large scale over a long period of time.




Bounties encourage fraud and cheating in presenting animals for payment. For instance, people collecting bounties on animals taken in other states or out of the intended area.

Describe the soil horizons. What composition does each have and how is it formed? Be complete.

O horizon: Litter

A horizon: humification, mostly organic

B horizon: mineralization, mostly inorganic

C horizon: weathered parent material

R horizon: slightly weathered parent material

Topsoil: O and A horizons

Subsoil: B and C horizons

List three important processes that increase soil nutrient concentration and three that deplete nutrients in soil.
IncreaseàNutrient concentration by plant “Pumping, deposition from atmosphere, N fixation by certain bacteria
Decreaseàerosion due to streams or dust, harvest and export of crop, fire-formed smoke and gases.
Describe in detail at least three ways in which erosion can be slowed down or stopped. Be sure to state whether or not these methods work.
Decrease Slope, by making the slope of the water erosion less steep, the water slows down, eroding much slower. Reducing Wind Velocity: There is no real way to reduce nature causing wind, so that method does not work. Maintaining organic cover on soil: organic matter acts like a sponge and absorbs water better, causing it harder to erode.
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of organic and inorganic fertilizer.
Organic: All Natural, makes the soil rich, transforms unhealthy soil, corrects imbalances, delievers nuterients in a slow but sustained rate, cost effective.
Inorganic: Works immediately, contains all necessary nuterients that are ready to use, affordable, convenient to use.
Describe at least five natural weathering factors associated with soils.
Weak acid etching, warm temperature and rain, plant roots, exposure of new rock surface, mountain building
Describe five factors that cause soil particles to aggregate.
Cycles of wet and dry, Iron and aluminum oxides CaCO3, humic materials, undecayed organic matter, earthworm feces and burrows, fungal hyphae, plant roots
Describe five sources of inorganic fertilizer.
Chilean nitrate, bat and seabird guano, marine sediment deposit mining, industrial fixation nitrogen, potash deposit mining
Does converting natural vegetation to farmland increase soil erosion? Why or why not?
Yes, after clearing away the natural vegetation the exposed top soil can be far easily eroded through wind or water.
Do you think it is possible to produce enough food to feed the human population without resorting to fertilizing the land? Why or why not?
No. The only reason we are able to sustain our food production currently is with the use of fertilizers. They expedite the process and health of all of the food we farm. Without this added help to go along with our farming, the food production would decrease, causing more and more world hunger.
Would it be possible to use human feces to fertilize the land? Describe the benefits and detriments of such a plan.
You could technically use human feces. The benefit to this is we are literally recycling the food we eat right back into helping grow more food. It would also be cost effective. Having said that, there could be many diseases that could be introduced into our food if we were to use human feces, making all of the food unhealthy.
If you inherited a farm that had worn out soil, what steps could you take to rehabilitate its productivity? Arrange the steps in rank order from most feasible to least feasible.
Nutrients can be retained in the soil by adding lime (CaCO3) to the fields to raise the PH of the soil. Spreading manure as well as applying inorganic fertilizer would also help a lot at increasing the soil nutrient concentration. Planting legumes in rotation.
Why is eroded material that washes into a stream harmful to the aquatic animals living in streams?
Dead Zones are caused by fertilizer that runs with eroded material into water sources. This then depletes all of the available oxygen in the region, making it unsustainable for animal and plant life.
Soil is developed through
The surface litter horizon of the soil is described by the letter
Dissolving material from the upper layers of the soil and movement to lower horizons is called
Humus is
partially decomposed organic matter.
Acidic soils can be neutralized by adding
The greatest amount of soil erosion is caused by
moving water
Of the following anthropogenic activities, which contributes the most to soil erosion?
 Soil accumulates faster in some areas than in others. Which of the following areas has the highest rate of soil accumulation?
Salt build-up may eventually make land unproductive. Which of the following types of plant could decrease the salt accumulation in an agricultural field?
Soil provides important macronutrients to plants growing within it.  what of these is a macronutrient plants need
Sediment in streams can have a negative effect on the organisms living there. What is not a negative effect of sediment in streams?
Increasing the complexity of the substrate in the streambed.
What is least likely to increase soil nutrients?
Irrigating fields to provide water.

 What is not  positive aspect of inorganic fertilizer?


a. They are very expensive to produce and to use.
b. They require a great deal of fossil fuel use to produce.
c. They reduce organic content in soils.
d. They reduce the ability of bacteria and plants to fix nitrogen.
How have animals adapted to grazing?
25% of global land surface is grazing land
What are the effects on the plant community of grazing at different intensities?
The highest plant productivity is seen with no grazing.
  Or a maximum plant growth rate is seen under moderate grazing and reduced growth at higher and lower grazing intensity.
Should prairie lands be protected? Give at least two reasons why or why not and defend your opinion.
Prairie lands should be protected, because they have a high production and may be harvested in daily increments. These lands provide food and grazing land for many animals. Without this resource for the many grazing animals, many would not be able to sustain the livestock they own.
What allows grazing animals to be so efficient at eating grass? Be sure to talk about both ruminants and non-ruminants.
As a part of their stomache grazing animals have a compartment called rumen, which makes them very efficient of processing the grass. Based on the herbivore digestion there are two types of grazers: Ruminants and Non-ruminant. Ruminants are more efficient in breaking the grass because of the presence of the caecum. Ruminants are more efficient in terms of animal tissue weight fomed per plant consumed, with about 5%.
Describe five grazers. Be complete.
Five very common grazers are: Cow, horse, rabbit, deer and sheep.
Some grazers are very selective in what they eat and some are not. Give three reasons why animals may choose one or the other of these strategies and defend them both.
Grazers might eat some plants because of their richness in protein, or because its taller and easier to grab or because they might have higher mineral content. Grazers might not eat some plants because of their chemical content or because it might not be a particular species that they like.
How have plants adapted to herbivory? Explain at least three adaptations.
Plants have been adopting to grazing by : meristem movement, low rosette juvenile, tall flowering stalk, spines and briars or creating chemical detriment
Describe the settlement of the American prairie. Be sure to include whether you think this was a good thing or a bad thing. Defend your position.
AP is characterized by limited precipitation and as well as summer rain and drought. With that you encounter periodic lightning, of which 75% occurs in July-August when season is dry. Effects of fire depend on temperature of fire, fuel available and fuel amount but also the time of year or how much times it passed since the last fire.
Describe the effects of fire on prairie lands. Be complete.
The effects of the fire depend on the temperature, fuel amount, and fuel available. Fires help to clear out trees growing in the region maintaining the prairie landscape. By burning away parts of the prairie land you can actually help with plant productivity by allowing the plants to break down into the soil and re grow.
Explain the concept of resource partitioning. 
The concept of resource partitioning, as originally developed, relates to evolutionary change in species in response to selection pressures generated by interspecific competition. More recently it has taken on another meaning, one that is not defined in terms of evolutionary function, and which refers simply to differences in resource use between species regardless of the origins of the differences.
 Does grazing ever increase plant height? Why or why not?
Sometimes the growth rate is increased and sometimes is decreased and it is not very clear why.
Grazers serve to ____________ energy from widely dispersed plants.
Grazing animals include
insects, cows, snails and dugongs.
 Some herbivores have a __________ in their digestive system to help them break down plants.
One way to separate herbivores into their classification units is to
examine  their teeth
Which animals are ruminants?
cattle, sheep, goats, deer, camels and bison
The ruminant digestive system has ______ chambers.
What is the most efficient at digesting plant material?


In order to keep herbivores from eating them, plants have evolved digestion resistant chemicals in their cells. What examples of this kind of chemical?

b. tannin

                                    c. lignin

Plants have adapted to herbivore grazing by developing
low rosette juveniles.
The American prairie was really created by
a. limited precipitation.
b. summer rain as well as summer drought.
c. periodic fires.
d. grazing pressures.
What features of plants DOES NOT affect how much animals eat?
root structure
What doesnot affect the damage done by fires on a prairie?
the cause of the fire
Higher plant diversity is found where plants are ______ versus areas where they are _____.
 grazed, ungrazed

which of the following is the truest statement?


a. Wildebeest, zebra and Thompson’s gazelle on the Serengeti Mara engage in resource
partitioning by eating different parts of plants.
b. Wildebeest, zebra and Thompson’s gazelle on the Serengeti Mara do not engage in
resource partitioning.
c. The idea that animals would eat different parts of plants is silly.
d. Herbivores all eat the same parts of plants and resource partitioning is a myth.

a. Wildebeest, zebra and Thompson’s gazelle on the Serengeti Mara engage in resource
How much of the global surface is grazing land?
When do fires occur most frequently on the American Prairie?
What is the science of Forest Ecology all about? How are these people trained? What do they have to do and know in order to manage forests?
Forest Ecology is about understanding all of the aspects of a forest ecosystem and finding ways to increase the productivity of a given forest or region. These people are trained to be managers of a forest, where they are in charge of manipulating vegetation, and are given specific goals. They also aim to reproduce valuable forest types. These people must be aware of the current state of the forest, the goal of their activity in the forest, and the projected finished product in order to stay on track.
Describe a forest community. How are deciduous and coniferous communities different?
A typical forest community is formed by:
EMERGENTS-most trees in the rain forests that are 20-40m tall, giant emergent trees grow even higher
CANOPY-the main leaf area of the forest community, most trees would reach this level high
UNDERSTORY- the area above ground up to the canopy structure
FOREST FLOOR-the area consisting of large animals and large numbers of insects that cohabit here
Deciduous conifers have pyramidal, open crowns and shed their needles annually and coniferous with straight cylindrical trunks. Whorled spreading branches and a crown density that varies from dense to open crowns
What is silviculture and how is it practiced in the U.S.?
Silviculture is tree framing, one example might me Christmas tree farms. In US we are experiencing a growth in the production of timber materials.
What benefits do forest managers gain from even and uneven structures in a managed forest?
Even aged structures allow a maximal harvest at one time, since all of the trees are the same age. This causes the deforestation to be in cycles. An uneven forest can provide a more constant stream of available trees to be harvested. In the end they provide the same just in different methods.
Why do wildlife species need habitat corridors?
Habitat corridors are used to overcome the negative effects of urbanization on animals. These corridors are strips of land used to help animals return to their natural habitats. These allow the animals to return to their proper wild life in their natural ecosystems, after they have been observed in a different region for data purposes.
Can the world’s forests supply our needs on a sustainable basis or is loss of forests inevitable?
 Explain your reasoning using examples from this lecture. The forests currently in the world cannot sustain our needs. With our very highly increasing population our day to day needs require us to chop down more trees a day than we can replace.
Describe even-aged and uneven-aged stand management. Do you think one method works better? Why or why not?
Even aged stands create forests of a single species, so they are relatively easy to maintain, and they can focus all their efforts on maximizing the growth of a single species. Uneven structures are used to manage shade tolerant species. These help to increase the size and health of a certain species being grown, so it in turn maximizes the growth of these species. Both have their benefits, it really depends on the species being grown and how it reacts with the different systems.
How can humans obtain all of our timber needs from forests without damaging them too much?
Be sure to talk about not only wood, but also other products that are used which come from forests. By making sure to replace anything taken from the forest, the damage would be lessened. By giving back and not just taking constantly you provide re growth and regeneration of the ecosystem. Also, by minimizing losses and ensuring fires and insects and disease issues remain low, the forest can regenerate from the timber and other resources taken from forests.
Define each of the following forest ecology terms: zonation, succession structure and landscape ecology.
nZonation: spatial change in species composition, community structure and function.
nSuccession: change in species composition, community structure and function over time at a given location.
nStructure: vertical stratification of vegetation at one point in both space and time.
nLandscape ecology: the study of the causes and consequences of spatial patterns in the landscape.
What are the five basic ideals of the field of landscape ecology. Describe each one.
Landscape is a mosaic
Corridors influence organism movement
Fragmentation creates patches
Disturbance created heterogeneity
Disturbances vary
 Compare and contrast forest management with classic forestry.
Forest Management includes manipulating vegetation with set goals in mind. Forest management is a definite long term investment. Classic Forestry is the focus on trying to reproduce valuable forest types and artificially create natural-type disturbances. Both are concerned with trying to improve the value of forests, but forest management is more concerned with the actual process of improving a forest, while classic forestry is more of a testing process to determine better forest management techniques.
Describe the future of forest management. How would YOU manage a forest to maximize its usefulness?
The future of forest management will most likely be a more machine based process. After running multiple trials on different natural disasters and every different species, machines will be able to maximize a forest better than humans can. I would maximize a forest by using data collected and implementing the most recent and effective processes to maintain the best species in the forest. I would be most concerned with overall productivity as well as the regeneration of the forest. To compliment this I would also be concerned with the methods used to collect resources from the forest. All of these factors combined would help me manage a forest and its usefulness.
How much forested land exists in the U.S.?
The national forests of the U.S. are managed on
a. a sustainable-yield multiple-use basis.
Forests remove ________________ and add ________________ to the atmosphere.
    d. carbon dioxide, oxygen
Succession can be defined as
b. a change in species composition, community structure and function over time at a given location.
The basic ideals of landscape ecology include
    a. A patterned landscape consists of a mosaic of patches of different origins embedded in a matrix.
b. Patches and corridors influence physical flows and organism movements across a
c. Fragmentation of the environment results in habitat patches of various sizes.
 The idea of a shifting-mosaic steady state is that
a. the process of succession is never-ending and is brought about by the continuous processes of birth, growth and death of individuals within the community.
The edge of a forest habitat is composed of areas of
. boundary and border.
The four structural levels of stratification in most forests are
emergents, canopy, understory and forest floor.
 From a purely economic standpoint, the rates of return on forestry are likely to be
Growing trees in a managed system of planting and harvest is known as
The objectives of a typical forest management plan include
    a. regeneration of a forest on a suitable site.
b. production of the maximum amount of timber possible for the site.
c. development of trees that are resistant to insects and disease
One method for creating even-aged stands is the
clear-cutting method.



In a typical forest, animals all live in the same levels of the canopy and eat the same food. This brings about niche specialization.

The movement of housing and shopping areas into areas that are more rural is known as
urban sprawl
What  is NOT an objective of forest management?
. maximize return
What is NOT an objective of forest management?


a. plant trees all the time
d. move damaging herbivores to other locations

a. plant trees all the time

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