Ecology Exam 1.2
Fringing Reef
Corals growing around young islands.
Barrier Reef
Corals move upward and outward as island subsides, forming a lagoon. Great Barrier Reef, largest.
Atoll
Island subsides and coral remains.
Lake Superior
Largest freshwater body.
Littoral Zone
Edge of lake.
Limnetic zone
Surface layer of lake.
Metalimnion
Below limnetic zone.
Hypolimnion
Bottom of lake.
Oligotrophic
Cool temperatures, low availability of nutrients.
Eutrophic
Warm temperatures, high availability of nutrients.
Mesotrophic
Between oligotrophic and eutrophic.
Amazon River
Largest river.
Water Column
Water from surface to stream floor.
Pool
Still water in a stream.
Riffle
Fast moving water in a stream.
Active Channel
Where stream rises during flooding.
Wetted Channel
Height of stream without flooding.
CPOM
Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (leaves)
FPOM
Fine Particulate Organic Matter (shredded CPOM)
Pentanal
Largest freshwater wetland (Brazil, Peru, Argentina).
Everglades
Largest wetland in the United States.
Freshwater Emergent Wetland
Phosphorous limited. Palustrine and lacustrine.
Marshes
Herbaceous vegetation.
Swamps
Woody vegetation.
Bogs
Acidic water.
Total Biodiversity
Balance between evolution and extinction.
Mass Extinctions
Silurian, Carboniferous, Triassic, Jurassic, Tertiary.
Total Species on Earth
30-50 million.
Milankovich Cycles
Earth’s tilt and orbit effects climate.
Biodiversity Hotspots
25 major hotspots, ~1.5% Earth’s surface/50%.
Allopatric Speciation
Population becomes fragmented and isolated, splits into two or more species.
Coldspots
Region with important ecosystem services.
Ground Color and Temperature
Black sand absorbs heat, white sand reflects.
Homeostasis
Maintenance of relatively constant physiological conditions.
Regulators
Warm-blooded/endotherm/homeotherm (mammals and birds). Heat comes from metabolism, maintain internal body temperature (60% effective, 40% body heat).
Conformers
Cold-blooded/ectotherm/poikilotherm (reptiles, amphibians, fish). Body temperature parallels environmental temp. Metabolism is slow, lose little heat, low insulation (not much heat made).
Heterotherms
Hummingbirds, tuna.
Torpor
Low metabolic rate, uses little energy.
Short Term Behavorial Responses
Conformers – maintain activity level within temp. range. Regulator – maintain constant body temp.
Short Term Physiological Responses
Regulator – evapotranspiration/heat retention/acclimation.
Long Term Behavorial Responses
Migration, long-term sleep, short-term sleep, dormancy, delayed development.
Aestivation
Summer dormancy.
Long Term Structural Responses
Thickness of hair.
Extremely Long Term Responses
Irreversible (influence on genes), skin coloration.
Life History Strategy
Decisions that organisms make that impact reproductive fitness. (Decisions or natural selection effect this).
Reproductive Fitness
Number of offspring that survive to reproductive age.
Decisions – Direct Influence on Reproductive Success
Traditional examples – Age of reproduction, number of offsprings produced at once (r-selected, k-selected).
R-Selected Species
Many small offspring, no parenting.
K-Selected Species
Few large offspring, much parenting.
Decisions – Indirect Influences on Reproductive Success
Inclusive examples – Foraging decisions, mate choice decisions.
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