Ecology Exam 1
Which biome occurs within 10degree lat. of the equator?
Tropical Rainfores
Which biome has little temperature variation between months with an annual evenly distributed rainfall of 2,000-4,000 mm?
Tropical Rainforests
Which biome has a thing organic soil layer which nutrients quickly leach out of?
Tropical Rainforest
Which biome has a vertical dimmenstion (ie. epiphytes) to its ecology? (2)
Tropical and temperate rainforests
Which biome occurs between 10-25degrees latitude?
Tropical dry forest
Which biome occurs immediately N/S of dry forests?
Tropical Savanna
Which biome alternates between wet and dry season with the dry seasons being associated with droughts and wildfires?
Tropical Savanna
Which biome has soils with low water permeability which keep trees out?
Tropical Savanna
Which biome forms two major bands at 30 degrees N and S?
Desert
Which biome occupies about 20% of the earth’s land surface?
Desert
Which biome’s water loss exceeds its precipitation most of the year?
Desert
Which biome has soil extremely low in organic matter?
Which biome occurs on all continents except Antarctica?
Temperate Woodland/Shrubland
Which biome is cool and moist in the fall, winter, and spring, but can be hot and dry in the summer?
Temperate Woodland/shrubland
Which biome has fragile soils with moderate fertility?
Temperate Woodland/Shrubland
Which biome receives an anual rainfall of 300-1,000mm with periodic droughts?
Temperate Grassland
Which biome has soils which tend to be extrememly rich in nutrients and very deep?
Temperatre Grassland
Which biome lies between 40 and 50 degrees?
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Which biome receives at anual rainfall of 650-3,000mm?
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Which biome is confined to the N hemisphere?
Boreal Forest
Which biome has short summers with winters longer than six months?
Boreal Forest
Which biome receives rainfall between 200-600mm anually.
Boreal Forest
Which biome covers most of the land N of the Arctic Circle?
Tundra
Which biome’s climate is typically cool and dry with short summers?
Tundra
Rivers and streams are divided into?
orders
The ______ the stream is to the source of the water flow, the smaller its order number.
closer
As other streams flow into an original headwater stream, the order number ______.
increases
What happens when streams of equal order come together?
the order increases by a factor of one
When a lesser order number stream flows into a stream with a greater order number what happens?
the order number does not change
HOw many factors determine the biotic composition of a stream?
6
What the six physical factors which determine the biotic composition in a stream?
1. the flow along its length
2. the flow along its width
3. the vertical channel
4. light
5. temperature and oxygen
6. movement
How does a river flow along its length?
pools, runs, riffles, rapids
Whare the three parts of a rivers width?
wetted channel, active channel, and riparian zone
Wetted Channel?
the area where there is water all of the time, even during low conditions
active channel?
where water typically runs, but may be dry at times throughout the year
Riparian Zone?
the transition area between the stream/river and upland area
What are the vertical layers of the stream channel?
Surface, water column, hyporheic zone, phreatic zone
Benthic region:
bottom of the channel, below the surface where water still flows
hyporheic zone:
Transition area between the benthic region and the groundwater
phreatic zone:
the area containing the groundwater
How does light effect life in a stream?
affects photosynthetic activity
The amount of photosynthetic activity occuring in a river/stream system ______ as the width of the river/stream ______.
increases, increases
As temp. _________ oxygen ________.
increases, decreases
what do O content and temp determine?
biota
O is related to what else other than temp.
movement
What does movement in a stream do?
delivers food downstream, removes wastes, renews oxygen, affects size and behavior of organisms.
What factors affect discharge?
land use in the watershed, antecedent conditions, slope and shape and aspect, soil type and depth of soil, geologic substrate, amount and intensity and duration of precipitation
What is the quick flow?
overland flow
What is delayed flow?
base flow
What is lag time?
the amount of time from the precipitation event to the time the river/stream is impacted by that event.
Streams in forested biomes tent to have a ________ hydrograph.
flattened
What is the role of canopy in hydrography?
a buffer. It intercepts some of the errosive power of rain
How does leaf litter contribute to a forested hydrography?
Acts as a sponge and storage area for water
How do forested soils contribute to contribute to a flattened hydrograph?
porous, decaryed tree roots, earthworm and other invertebrate activity create macropores leading to high infiltration and percolation rates
Streams in urban areas tend to have ________ hydrographs of shorter duration.
heightened
What are some characteristics of the hydrographs of urban areas?
decreased lag time from precipitation even to peak runoff, increased peak flow substantially, decreased duration of runoff even, decreased baseflow, total discharge increase, majority of dischard derived from overland flow
CPOM
Coarse particulate organic matter
FPOM
Fine particulate organic matter
What is the major source of energy in medium sized streams?
FPOM
What are the primary species of the benthic community in medium headwater streams?
collectors and grazers
Horizontal Structure of lakes:
Littoral zone, limnetic zone
Littoral Zone:
area where plants are able to grow
Limnetic zone
open water, depth great than at which plants can grow
Vertical structure of a lake:
Epilimnion, metalimnion, hypolimnion
Epilimnion
surface waters, sunlight penetrates and warms the water
Metalimnion
the zone where temperature and other physical and chemical factors chage rapidly with depth
hypolimnion
coldest, darkest, low O waters, very little change throughout the year
The amount of light absorbed by the lake is _________ related to the amount of __________ in the lake.
directly, nutrients
Nutrient poor water is?
oligotrophic
Nutrient rich water is?
eutrophic
What is the difference between natural and cultural eutrophication?
one is driven by human actvities and occurs rapidly
When does overturn occur? time of year
spring and fall
What temperature does overturn occur at?
4 C
Types of wetlands?
Marsh, Swamp, Bog
Which wetlands are an open system?
marshes and swamps
How do you know it’s a wetland? (3 things)
soils, hydrologic regime, hydrophytic plants
Microclimates occur within?
macroclimates
A macroclimate is a ______ or _______?
biome, ecosystem
What do microclimates have variations in? (3)
1. temp
2. precip.
3. humidity
Microclimates are found in relation to? (6)
1. altitude
2. aspect
3. aquatic environs = depth
4. boulders and burrows
5. color of ground
6. vegetation
As altitude ________, temperature __________.
increase, decreases
Why does temp decrease as altitude increases?
loss of heat to surrounding air, less atmosphere to trap and radiate heat
What do most living thing use microclimates for?
temp regulation
What are cretical temperature ranges a function of? What do they control?
Enzyme production and function in living organisms
What is thermoregulation?
The ability of plants and animals to regulat their bodies
Poikilotherms
cold blooded
homeotherms
warm blooded
ALPHATBET SOUP: what do the following letters stand for in the thermoregulation equation
s, met, cond, conv, SR, IR, e
total stored heat, metabolic heat, conduction, convection, solar radiation, infrared radiation, evaporation
In the thermoregulation equation what is different for the endotherms.
Heat of metabolism is included
Hcond uses what to regulate temp.
substrate to conduct heat to body
Hconv uses what to regulate temp.
positioning the body to reduce the rate of convection due to wind or air
What is responsible for the majority of heat regulation in endotherms?
Hmet
Thermal Neutral Zone
the zone of temperature in which excess heating or cooling of the organism is not required for normal physical operation
What are poiliothermic endotherms?
living organisms which would be generally considered cold-blooded, but have the ability to maintain bodily temperature via metabolic functions
How do desert plants thermoregulate?
light colored leaves, small in size, well away from ground
how do artic plants thermoregulate?
dark colored leaves, close to the ground, broad leaves
What are ways ecotherms regulate heat?
shunt heat to surface blood vessels to release, shunt blood internall to retain heat, basking
What are ways endotherm regulate heart
sweat, shiver, shunt heat to external appendages, countercurrent heat exchange
Which MI species hibernate?
woodchuck, LB bat, 13-lined ground squirrel, jumping mouse
What is dormancy?
Periods of sleep and inactivity followed by periods of activity and feeding.
What is brumation?
body shuts down and temp drops close to critcal limit. does not become active until body temp rises to level wehre enzymews can again allow activity
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