Ecology exam 1
Ecosystem
Community of organisms plus the physical environment
Community
An association of interacting species in the same area
Null Hypothesis
Claims there will be no change/difference
Independent variables
(treatments) what is manipulated
Dependent variable
What is measured
Control
Unaltered variable
Phenotypic Plasticity
Variation in form and function within a species due to env. factors
Evolution
Change in allele frequency over time
Coevolution
Reciprocal evolutionary change in interacting species
Bottleneck effect
Population almost extinct and then there is a rebound
Founder’s effect
Small population gets isolated
Phenotype
an individual’s observable traits
Fitness
Describes how good a genotype is at leaving offspring relative to other genotypes
Constraints on adaptive evolution
1)Lack of genetic variation
2)Evolutionary history (ancestry)
3)Ecological trade-offs/compromises
Genetic Drift
loss of alleles in small populations by random chance
Ectotherm
-Must get body heat from surroundings
-Tend to have dark pigmentation
Endotherm
Produce heat internally meaning biochem systems operate and coordinate better
Torpor
State of dormancy/hibernation: Body temp and basal metabolic rates are lowered
Heat regulation in plants
-Reflective hairs, leaf size, leaf angle, stem height, color
C3 Plants
-85% of plants
-Stomata close when hot, causing CO2 levels to drop and O2 levels to build up during photo.
C4 Plants
CO2 delivered directly to Rubisco by spatial separation of C4 & C3 steps in diff cell types, speeding up photo. and increasing water efficiency (3% of land plants)
CAM Plants
-Temporal separation of C3 & C4 (stomata close during day and open at night),store CO2 for photosynthesis
-8% of land plants
Intrasexual Selection
male to male competition
Intersexual Selection
Female mate choice
Honest Signals
Vocals (pitch and intensity of calls), body size, weapons
Parental Investment
Diff: Gamete size, resources donated to mates, protection
Sexual selection more intense for sex with lower PI
Carotenoids
Orange color, antioxidants, immune system function, precursor for visual pigments
Monogamy
-One male and one female, both provide care
-Social:Pairs, but okay to be in multiple pairs
Genetic:Strict, one pair
Polygyny
Male with multiple females, female provides care
polyandry
female with multiple males, male provides care
promiscuity
Both mate with multiple partners
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