Ecology Exam III
Grassland

Grass (Few Trees)

10-30 inches Rain

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Rolling/Flat

Warm Summers and Cold Winters

 

Vegetation

Grasses and Forbs

 

Greatests Productivity per Unity Standing Crop

High Root/Shoot Ratio

 

Types of Grasslands

1.  Cultivated

2.  Successional

3.  North American Grasslands

4.  Eurasian Steppes

5.  South American Pampas

6.  South African Veldt

7.  Australian Grassland

Types of North American Grasslands

Tall-grass pairie – Big Bluestem, Needlegrass, legumes, composites, squirrels, gophers

Mixed-grass pairie – Needlegrass-grama, bison, pronghorn, antelope

Short-grass prairie – blue grama, buffalo grass, prairie dogs

Desert grassland – SW US, N Mexico, Bunchgrasses

Annual grassland – San Joaquin Valley, CA

Palosue Prairie – b/n Rocky Mtns and Cascades, cool season bunchgrasses, sagebrush

Savanna

Grass with Scattered Woody Vegetation

 

Wet/Dry Seasons

Tropics/Subtropics

Central and Southern Africa

 

Mammals

Wildebeest, Leopard, Lion, Zebra, Giraffe, Elephants, Cheetah, Rhino, Hyaena, Termites, Bunchgrasses

Shrubland

Arid/Semi-Arid Regions

 

Types of Shrubland

Mediterranean – Hot dry summers, cool wet winters, sclerophyllous Vegetation

 

North American Chaparral – thicket of Shrubby Evergreen Oak, Active in Winter, Dormant in Summer, Scrub ak, Chamise

 

Northern Desert Scrub – Cold Desert of Great Basin, Sagebrush

 

Heathlands – Heath-like plants, sclerophyllous vegetation, Arctic Regions, NW Europe

 

Successional – Sumac, Alder, and Willow

Fauna

Animals of a Given Region or Area

 

Jackrabbit, coyotes

Found in Chaparral and Desert Shrubs

Deserts

< 10 Inches of Rain

 

Hot Summers

 

Poor Soil

 

Low Productivity

Types of Desert

North America

    Great Basin – Cold Desert, Sagebrush

 

    SW US – CAM Plants, Cactus (Giant Saguaro),        Yucca, Ephemeral Species, Lizards, Snakes,            Coyotes, Spadefoot Toda, Rodents (Kangaroo         Rat)

Tundra

Treeless, Cold, Short Growing Season

 

Arctic – permafrost, dwarf shrub and heaths, lichen, moss, chusion plants, grass, and sedge

 

Alpine – no permafrost, wetter than Arctic

Types of Alpine Tundra

Western Mountains – Cushion, mat-forming plants, Marmots, Mountain Goats, Bighorn Sheep, and Pika

 

Appalachian – heaths and sedge meadows

 

Tropical – Rosette Plants

Types of Coniferous Forests
  1. Taiga
  2. Montane
  3. Southern Pine
  4. Temperate Rainforest

Taiga

Boreal Forest

 

Not very productive

(little plant biomass produced each year)

Not very Diverse

 

Vegetation

Spruce, Fir, Larch, Pine, Birch, Aspen, Lichen, and Moss

 

Boreal
Of, or related to, Northern Biotic Region
Taiga Fauna
Caribou, Moose, Snowshoe hare, and Lynx
Montane

Central Europe – Norway Spruce, Scots Pine

 

Rocky Mountains – Engelmann Spruce, Subalpine Fir, Douglas-fir, Ponderosa & Lodgepole Pines

 

Sierra Nevada & Cascades – Red Fir, Lodgepole Pine, Giant Sequoia, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa

Southern Pine

Coastal Plains – Pine

    Pine Barrens (NJ) – Dwarf Pine: pitch pine, dwarf blackjack oak

 

Southeastern Mixed – Oak and Pine

Temperate Rainforest

Pacific NW – Douglas Fir, Redwood (CA), Ferns, and Mosses

 

Fauna – Bear, Moose, Mountain Lion, Squirrel, and White-tailed Deer

Types of Temperate Broadleaf Forest
  1. Temperate Deciduous Forest
  2. Temperate Evergreen Forest
  3. Temperate Woodlands

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Asia

Eupore – Beech, oak, ash, birch, elm

North America – hemlock, northern hardwood forest, central hardwood forest

Hemlock Temperate Deciduous Forest
White Pine & Northern Hardwood Forest Mix
Northern Hardwood Forest – Temperate Deciduous Forest
Beech, maple, black cherry, red oak
Central Hardwood Forest – Temperate Deciduous Forest

Southern Slopes – Oak and Chestnut

 

Northern Slopes/Cloves – Tulip tree, high diversity of temperate tree species

 

Ozarks – oak and hickory

Temperate Evergreen Forest

Australia – Eucalyptus forest

 

Gulf Coast and Florida Everglades – Magnolia, live oak, Spanish moss, Palm

Temperate Woodlands
Oak, Oak-Juniper, and Pine-Juniper
Tropical Rainforest

Regions:

Amazon Basin, Indo-Malaysian, West & Central Africa

 

Warm, Constant Temperature with 60 to 160 inches of rain

Flora – Broadleaf evergreen trees, Epiphytes, Lianas

 

Vegetation structure/stratification:

    Feeding Layers, Most Productive Ecosystem,         Infertile soil, nudtrients are in the vegetation     not soil, Organic matter decomposes quickly,     no significant litter layer

Mountain Rainforest/Cloud Forest

Shorter Trees with gnarles limbs

 

More even canopy

Tropical Seasonal Forest

Transitional – less rain, temperature more variable

 

Few trees lose leaves during dry period

Tropical Dry Forest

> 40 % tropical Forest

 

Most tropical forests are not rainforests

 

distinct wet and dry seasons

 

plants lose leaves during dry period

Lentic (Lacustrine)
Lakes
Pelagic
Open Water Area
Zone of Lakes

Zones are relative to Light Compensation Points

Limnetic – Light Penetrates

Profundal – Deep water, without Light

Plankton

Wanderer

 

Zoo Plankton – Rotifers, copepods

 

Phytoplankton – Blue-green Algae, Green Algae, Diatoms

Nekton

Free Swimming Organisms

 

E.g. Fish, large Invertebrates

Neuston

Organisms associated with Surface of Lake

 

E.g.  Water striders

Benthic

Bottom (on or in)

 

Zones

 

Profundal benthos

Littoral benthos

Littoral
Margin of Lake
Riparian

Shoreline

 

Types:  Muddy and Oozy, Rocky and Sandy Shores

Macrophytes
Large Plants in a Lake
Types of Macrophytes
  1. Emergent – e.g. reeds, cattails, bulruches
  2. Floating – rooted – e.g. water lilies, pondweeds
  3. Free-floating – (surface) – e.g. duckweed
  4. Free-floating – (submerged) – e.g. hornwort
  5. Submerged-rooted – e.g. Chara, Elodea

 

Lacustrine Succession
  1. Bare bottom and Open Water – pioneer stage
  2. Submergent Vegetation and Phytoplankton (Algae)
  3. Emergent Vegetation
  4. Temporary Pond
  5. Marsh
  6. Grassland – Prairie, meadow
  7. Forest

 

Littoral Fauna

Insects:

Dragonflies, mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, midges, backsimmers, water strider, and diving beetle

 

Fish

Physical Features of Lakes
  1. Light
  2. Temperature

Light:

     Zones: euphotic, disphotic, and aphotic

     Light Compensation Point

 

Temperature

Thermal Stratification: epilimnion, metalimnion, hypolimnion

Dimictic Lakes: 2 mixing periods/overturns

Formation of Lakes
  1. Glaciers – e.g. Kettle Lakes
  2. Ice Scour – e.g. Finger Lakes, Great Lakes
  3. Tectonic Lakes – e.g. Rift Lakes, Lake Tahoe
  4. Volcanic Lakes – e.g. Crater Lake
  5. Riverine Lakes – Oxbow Lakes, Floodplain Lake
  6. Coastal Impoundment – e.g. Coast of S Africa
  7. Organic Origins – e.g. Hoover Dam

Major Lakes
  1. Caspian Sea – Largest Inland body of Water
  2. Dead Sea – Most concentrated natural salt Lake in world, Lowest point on Earth
  3. Great Salt Lake
  4. Baikal – Largest (Volume) Deepest
  5. The Great Lakes – e.g. Superior (Largest in Surface Area), Michigan
  6. Aral Sea

Salt Marshes

Associated with Estuaries, Flooded daily by tides, High Productivity, Low Diversity, and Food web Changes with Tide

 

Flora – Saltwater Cordgrass

 

Fauna – Fiddler Crab, ribbed mussel, and Marsh Periwinkle

Estuaries

 

E.g. – River deltas, bays, lagoons

 

Primarily marine, benthic organisms (e.g. Oysters)

 

Salinity Stratification

Coral Reefs

Warm, shallow, nutrient-deficient seas

 

Very productive, high biodiversity

 

Living Coral, Coralline red algae, foraminifera, mollusks

Riverine
Stream
Why do Streams Exist?
  1. Surface Water
  2. Channels
  3. Slope or Gradiant

Watershed
Area or River where a water stream drains
Stream Order

Stream Orders from 1 to 3 = Headwater Streams

Stream Orders from 4 to 6 = Mid Size Streams

Stream Orders from 6 and Above are Larger Streams

Major Rivers
  1. Nile – Longest River
  2. Mississippi/Missouri River – 12 miles shorter than Nile
  3. Amazon River – Widest River
  4. Colorado – Drains into the Pacific Ocean
  5. Columbia/Snake
  6. St. Lawrence

Stream Physical Features
  1. Flow
  2. Pools and Riffles

Flow:

Must be moving and it Meanders

Water flows the fastest in the Center of the River

Benthic Structures of Streams
  1. Sandy Benthic
  2. Bedrock Benthic
  3. Gravel and Rubble Benthic – Most productive becuase of small spaces for small organisms to hide

 

Detritus of Streams
  1. CPOM – Coarse Particulate Organic Matter – Size is anything > 1 mm in Diameter (e.g. trees, woods, plants, leaves)
  2. FPOM – Fine Particulate Organic Matter – Size range from .5 mm to 1 mm (e.g. invertebrates that live in small spaces)  Some of these particles can actually move out and dissolve into UPOM
  3. UPOM – Ultrafine Particulate Organic Matter – Size is < .5 mm and Particles generally do not dissolve at this level

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