The study of the exchanges of materials, energy or organisms among ecosystems
Boreal or Taiga
dominated by black spruce; cold climate; moist soils)
(small plants & no trees, poorly developed soils
hot, low soil moisture, sandy soils
Tropical Rain Forest
wet, warm; very biologically diverse
is defined as the average weather pattern over a long period of time at a particular location, normally in terms of temperature and precipitation.
Toronto’s climate: cold winters, warm summers, approx. 900 mm of precipitation per year.
is defined as the meteorological conditions at a point in time (weather forecast for today is cloudy, warm, windy, with 30% chance of precipitation, etc)
What affects distribution of climate around the earth?
Spherical shape of the earth and tilt of earth’s axis cause uneven heating of earth’s surface.
Uneven heating drives major global air circulation patterns and consequently precipitation and biome distribution patterns.
Tropical Hadley Cell in northern hemisphere
Circulation pattern in cell caused by: • Warm, moist air rises. • Moisture cools, condenses, and falls as rain. • Some of the dry ascending air travels northward. Then cooler, dry air falls back to surface. Once air has been set in motion, it undergoes an apparent deflection from its path, as seen by an observer on the earth. This apparent deflection is called the “Coriolis force” and is a result of the earth’s rotation or daily spin.–deflected to the right in northern hemisphere and left in southern