Unlike energy flow through ecosystems, the elemental constituents of biomass:
Microbial enrichment refers to:
othe release of dissolved nutrients from POM by microorganisms breaking it down
How can a P/R ratio (carbon sink/carbon source) indicate disturbance in natural communities?
opulses of organic matter can shift the ratio into a heterotrophic succession
oearly successional stages resulting from “repair” of forest gaps are areas of higher production than respiration
ostable climax communities at equilibrium for biomass and energy dynamics tend to have a P/R ratio of1
The terms Pioneer and Climax species have been used by botanists to describe:
qr-selected species (pioneer) and K selected species (climax) based on growth dynamics and competitive ability.
GPP – NPP =
A P/R ratio is indicative of which of the following:
qwhether or not a community is at steady state
qwhether or not a community is detritus based
qwhether a community is undergoing succession or is at climax
A P/B ratio provides an indication of:
oproduction as a fraction of biomass respired
The difference between regional natural NPP and human modified landscape production (agriculture, lawns,asphalt, concrete, buildings, etc.) is called:
ocoopted and missing production
Which of the following is listed in order of increasing assimilation efficiency:
odetritivores, herbivores, carnivores
Which of the following factors contribute to determining the half-life of detritus in the 0 horizon?
Mineralization and Immobilization refer to:
A)The change in the net flux of nutrients as detritus decomposes (me)
What are the three dominant greenhouse gases
onone of these (CO2 NO2 CH4)
Energy that contributes to NPP but is not directly captured as chemical potential energy in biomass is called:
In terms of sources of nutrient pollution, which has a greater impact?
TMDL” stands for:
qTotal Maximum Daily Load
Three broad categories that were presented as types of environmental impacts from man’s activities are:
qoverloads with biodegradables, alteration of abiotic conditions, addition of novel synthetic organics
What does “Assimilative Capacity” mean?
qAbility to utilize or absorb a substance (The ability of a body of water to cleanse itself; its capacity to receive waste waters or toxic materials without deleterious effects and without damage to aquatic life)
What is the origin of the N coming down with the rainfall?
qOnshore combustion of fossil fuels
Why is rainfall a problem for some sewage treatment plants?
qsome older cities have combined storm water and sewer systems
Why isn’t sewage sludge used more widely as compost?
qsludge may be contaminated with metals and synthetic chemicals.
qthe attitude represented by: “You’re not putting that stuff on my vegetables!”
What are the potential uses of sewage treatment plant effluent?
.The goal of secondary sewage treatment is:
Approximately what fraction of municipal solid waste going to landfills is biodegradable or recyclable?
Why don’t organic materials degrade in landfills?
qThey are anerobic
Why is mercury contamination such a problem in Florida?
qThere’s lots of sulfate reducing bacteria
qnone of these
qresults in increased toxicant loads if they are retained when assimilated biomass is respired.
What would you predict to be the effect of a toxic pollutant on growth efficiency?
qenergy expended in repair from toxicant damage would decrease growth efficiency
A tertiary stage of sewage treatment involves:
qNone of these(nutrient removal)
.If bacteria like to eat oil, why are oil spills a problem?
qIf it exceeds the assimilative capacity of the system, it creates a smothering overload
qWhen the labile stuff is gone, the refractory stuff is toxic
qIf it can find anaerobic space, it can’t be oxidized to CO2
PCB stands for:
qnone of these (polychlorinated biphenyls)
qcome from coal tar
qcome from crude oil
What is PAN?
Combustion of fossils fuels affects which of the following:
qNitrogen loading in waterways
qMercury loading of waterways
qPercent base saturation of soils
In order, which fuel provides the most energy return
The greenhouse effect
ois an environmental cause with no real substance
.Atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased approximately how much in the past 150 years
o10 percent (it should be going up 2-3ppm per year, but instead is going up 1ppm)